Joint association of bullying and cyberbullying in health-related quality of life in a sample of adolescents

  • Joaquín González-CabreraEmail author
  • Juan Manuel Machimbarrena
  • Jessica Ortega-Barón
  • Aitor Álvarez-Bardón



Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) has been analyzed in relation to multiple psychosocial and health problems. However, only a few studies have analyzed the impact of bullying and cyberbullying on HRQoL. The main purpose of this study was to analyze the level of severity of bullying and cyberbullying on HRQoL. The effects of different roles, especially the conjunctions of of victim–cybervictim and bully–victim/cyberbully–cybervictim on HRQoL, were explored.


An analytical and cross-sectional study was conducted in a region of northern Spain. Random and representative sampling was employed. The participants included 12, 285 adolescents between 11 and 18 years of age, with a mean age of 14.69 ± 1.73. The Spanish version of the KIDSCREEN-27, the Spanish version of the European bullying intervention project questionnaire (EBIPQ), and the cyberbullying triangulation questionnaire (CTQ) were employed.


The prevalence of bullying victimization, cybervictimization, bullying perpetration, and cyberbullying perpetration was 12%, 8.1%, 10.4%, and 7%, respectively. Significant and negative correlations between all the dimensions of the EBIPQ and the CTQ with the KIDSCREEN-27 were found. Victimization and cybervictimization had more impact than bullying perpetration and cyberbullying perpetration, especially on psychological well-being and school environment. The mixed roles of the victim–cybervictim and victim–cybervictim/bully–cyberbully obtained lower scores than the remaining roles in all the dimensions of KIDSCREEN-27.


Those in mixed roles related to victimization and cybervictimization obtained the lowest scores in all HRQoL dimensions. The results enhance an understanding of the severity of the problem of bullying and cyberbullying and their impact on HRQoL.


Health-related quality of life Bullying Cyberbullying Child Adolescence 



This research was funded by Spanish Ministry of Economy, Industry and Competitiveness, RTI2018-094212-B-I00: (CIBER-AACC); and by the International University of la Rioja, Project “Cyberpsychology” (Trienio Own Research Plan 4 [2017-2020]). We wish to thank the participating schools, their management teams, faculty, and, especially, the students and their families for realizing the importance of the study. We are especially grateful to the “Dirección General de Ordenación Académica e Innovación Educativa (Consejería de Educación y Cultura, Principado de Asturias, España).”

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki Declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed consent

The study obtained the approval of legal guardians through a procedure with passive consent.


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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of EducationUniversidad Internacional de la Rioja (UNIR)LogroñoSpain
  2. 2.Faculty of PsychologyUniversity of the Basque Country UPV/EHUDonostiaSpain

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