Quality of Life Research

, Volume 28, Issue 12, pp 3323–3332 | Cite as

Positive associations of optimism–pessimism orientation with pro-environmental behavior and subjective well-being: a longitudinal study on quality of life and everyday behavior

  • Naoko KaidaEmail author
  • Kosuke Kaida



The aim of the present study was to investigate associations of the balance of optimism and pessimism orientations as personal traits with pro-environmental behavior and subjective well-being, i.e., life satisfaction.


A longitudinal questionnaire survey consisting of two waves were conducted with Japanese respondents within an interval of 3 months (N = 770, mean age 49.6 ± 15.23 years). Correlation analyses and structural equation modeling were conducted to identify relationships between pro-environmental behavior and positive and negative psychological states and orientations.


Results of both the two surveys indicated positive correlations of optimism–pessimism orientation (O/P ratio) and subjective well-being with pro-environmental behavior. Negative associations were also confirmed between depression, stress, and sleepiness and pro-environmental behavior. Structural equation modeling using the two-wave data revealed that O/P ratio is positively associated with pro-environmental behavior as longitudinal associations.


These results suggest that O/P ratio can be related to current and future engagement in pro-environmental behavior and improvement in subjective well-being which could lead to an environmentally sustainable society with enhanced quality of life.


Pro-environmental behavior Subjective well-being Optimism Pessimism Sleepiness Constructiveness Cross-lagged study 



This study was funded by MEXT/JSPS KAKENHI Grant (No. 26550107).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the University of Tsukuba Research Ethics Committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of Engineering, Information and SystemsUniversity of TsukubaTsukubaJapan
  2. 2.Institute for Information Technology and Human Factors, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST)TsukubaJapan

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