Impact of pharmaceutical care on mental well-being and perceived health among community-dwelling individuals with type 2 diabetes
Mental well-being among community-dwelling individuals with type 2 diabetes has not been well established. The primary objective was to evaluate the change in the mental well-being of individuals with diabetes. The secondary objective was to evaluate the association between changes in mental well-being and perceived health over 6 months, and any interacting factors in this association.
This was a prospective, multicenter study. Community-dwelling individuals aged ≥ 21 years with type 2 diabetes were invited to meet with community pharmacists monthly for 6 months. Individuals who were unable to converse independently were excluded. A 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ), measuring mental well-being was administered at baseline, and after 3 and 6 months. Perception of health was measured using the visual analog scale (VAS) of the EuroQoL 5-Dimension tool. Linear mixed model was used to analyze the change in mean GHQ and VAS scores. Association between the changes in GHQ and VAS scores was determined, and moderation analysis was conducted to elucidate the interacting variables of this association.
Ninety-six individuals (82.4%) were included for analysis. The mean age was 60.3 years with a baseline mean HbA1c of 7.6%. A mean GHQ score reduction of 1.36 (p = 0.022) was observed. This reduction of mean GHQ score was associated with the change in mean VAS score. Having a duration of diabetes diagnosis of < 3.2 years was identified as moderator of this association.
Effective integrated pharmaceutical care with individualized counseling on lifestyle management appeared to improve the mental health of community-dwelling individuals with diabetes on top of glycemic control.
KeywordsCommunity pharmacy Mental well-being Pharmaceutical care Quality of life Diabetes
The authors would like to thank the participating community retail pharmacists, Jaclyn Hwei, Mariana Mohamed, Linda Nathan, Ivan Ng, and Mandy Tam for volunteering their time to care for the patients in this study. The authors would also like to thank general physician Siew Meng Cheong for his advisory support in the study workflow, and Ms. Yiam Moi Chan for her administrative support.
The study was partially funded by the Alice Lim Grant (Singapore), and the glucose meters were donated by Johnson & Johnson Pte. Ltd. (Singapore).
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors have no conflict of interest to declare.
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the National University of Singapore Institutional Review Board and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.
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