Quality of Life Research

, Volume 28, Issue 5, pp 1255–1264 | Cite as

Psychometric properties and factorial analysis of invariance of the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS) in cancer patients

  • Urbano Lorenzo-Seva
  • Caterina CalderonEmail author
  • Pere Joan Ferrando
  • María del Mar Muñoz
  • Carmen Beato
  • Ismael Ghanem
  • Beatriz Castelo
  • Alberto Carmona-Bayonas
  • Raquel Hernández
  • Paula Jiménez-Fonseca



The purpose of this study was to assess the psychometric properties of the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS), evaluate the measurement invariance with respect to sex, age, and tumor location, as well as analyze associations between life satisfaction and socio-demographic and clinical variables among individuals with resected, non-advanced cancer.


A confirmatory factor analysis was conducted to explore the dimensionality of the scale and test invariance across gender, age, and tumor localization in a prospective, multicenter cohort of 713 patients who completed the following scales: SWLS, Health-related Quality of Life Questionnaire (EORTC QLQ-C30), Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI-18).


Confirmatory factor analysis results indicated that the SWLS is an essentially unidimensional instrument, providing accurate scores: both McDonald’s omega and Cronbach’s alpha estimates were 0.91. Strong measurement invariance was found to hold across gender, age, and tumor localization. Low satisfaction with life was associated with psychological symptoms (anxiety, depression, and somatization), and decreased quality of life (malfunction, symptoms, poor global QoL).


The SWLS is a reliable, valid satisfaction with life measurement among people with cancer and should be recommended as an indicator of psychological adjustment in oncological patients.


Life satisfaction Psychometric Invariance Cancer Quality of life 



The authors would like to thank the investigators of the Neocoping study (coping, shared decision-making, and quality of life in patients with early-stage cancer treated with adjuvant chemotherapy) and the Supportive Care Working Group of the Spanish Society of Medical Oncology (SEOM).


This work was funded by the Spanish Society of Medical Oncology (SEOM) in 2015. The sponsor of this research has not participated in data collection, analysis, or interpretation, in writing the report, or in the decision to submit the article for publication.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors have declared no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Urbano Lorenzo-Seva
    • 1
  • Caterina Calderon
    • 2
    Email author
  • Pere Joan Ferrando
    • 1
  • María del Mar Muñoz
    • 3
  • Carmen Beato
    • 4
  • Ismael Ghanem
    • 5
  • Beatriz Castelo
    • 5
  • Alberto Carmona-Bayonas
    • 6
  • Raquel Hernández
    • 7
  • Paula Jiménez-Fonseca
    • 8
  1. 1.Department of Psychology, Faculty of PsychologyRovira and Virgili UniversityTarragonaSpain
  2. 2.Department of Clinical Psychology and Psychobiology, Faculty of PsychologyUniversity of BarcelonaBarcelonaSpain
  3. 3.Department of Medical OncologyHospital Virgen de La LuzCuencaSpain
  4. 4.Department of Medical OncologyHospital Grupo QuirónSevillaSpain
  5. 5.Department of Medical OncologyHospital Universitario La PazMadridSpain
  6. 6.Department of Medical OncologyHospital Universitario Morales MeseguerMurciaSpain
  7. 7.Department of Medical OncologyHospital Universitario de CanariasTenerifeSpain
  8. 8.Department of Medical OncologyHospital Universitario Central of AsturiasOviedoSpain

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