Advertisement

Morphological and Compositional Analysis of Two Walnut (Juglans regia L.) Cultivars Growing in China

  • 51 Accesses

Abstract

Two selected walnut cultivars (Xiangling and Jizhaomian) growing in China were analyzed in terms of proximate and mineral composition, fatty acid and amino acid profile. According to the higher kernel rate (61.22%), thinner shell (1.03 mm), higher content of fat (66.93%), protein (20.97%), essential amino acids (29.31% of total amino acids) and minerals such as manganese, zinc and copper, Xiangling would be the more nutritive cultivar with more commercial value. However, Jizhaomian would be the more healthful cultivar based on the higher content of polyunsaturated fatty acids (79.39% of total fatty acids), and it would be more sensitive to rancidity. Jizhaomian also showed higher content in potassium, calcium, magnesium and iron. Genotype is the major source of variability in morphology and chemical compositions. Regardless of the cultivar, consumption of walnuts is desirably encouraged, since all of them contain compounds potentially beneficial to health.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Access options

Buy single article

Instant unlimited access to the full article PDF.

US$ 39.95

Price includes VAT for USA

Subscribe to journal

Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.

US$ 99

This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.

References

  1. 1.

    Chen LN, Ma QG, Chen YK, Wang BQ, Pei D (2014) Identification of major walnut cultivars grown in China based on nut phenotypes and SSR markers. Sci Hortic 168:240–248

  2. 2.

    Bolling BW, McKay DL, Blumberg JB (2010) The phytochemical composition and antioxidant actions of tree nuts. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 19:117–123

  3. 3.

    Martínez ML, Labuckas DO, Lamarque AL, Maestri DM (2010) Walnut (Juglans regia L.): genetic resources, chemistry, by-products. J Sci Food Agric 12:1959–1967

  4. 4.

    Ros E (2010) Health benefits of nut consumption. Nutrients 2:652–682

  5. 5.

    Calcabrini C, De Bellis R, Mancini U, Cucchiarini L, Stocchi V, Potenza L (2017) Protective effect of Juglans regia L. walnut extract against oxidative DNA damage. Plant Food Hum Nutr 72:192–197

  6. 6.

    Amaral JS, Casal S, Pereira JA, Seabra RM, Oliveira BPP (2003) Determination of sterol and fatty acid compositions, oxidative, stability and nutritional value of six walnut (Juglans regia L.) cultivars grown in Portugal. J Agric Food Chem 51:7698–7702

  7. 7.

    Maguire LS, O’Sullivan SM, Galvin K, O’Connor TP, O’Brien NM (2004) Fatty acid profile, tocopherol, squalene and phytosterol content of walnuts, almonds, peanuts, hazelnuts and the macadamia nut. Int J Food Sci Nutr 55:171–178

  8. 8.

    Gharibzahedi SMT, Mousavi SM, Hamedi M, Khodaiyan F (2014) Determination and characterization of kernel biochemical composition and functional compounds of Persian walnut oil. J Food Sci Technol 51:34–42

  9. 9.

    Liu RH (2003) Health benefits of fruits and vegetables are from additive and synergistic combination of phytochemicals. Am J Clin Nutr 78:517–520

  10. 10.

    Ros E, Mataix J (2006) Fatty acid composition of nuts-implications for cardiovascular health. Brit J Nutr 96:S29–S35

  11. 11.

    Hardman WE (2014) Walnuts have potential for cancer prevention and treatment in mice. J Nutr 144:555s–560s

  12. 12.

    Haider S, Batool Z, Tabassum S, Perveen T, Saleem S, Naqvi F, Javed H, Haleem DJ (2011) Effects of walnuts (Juglans regia) on learning and memory functions. Plant Food Hum Nutr 66:335–340

  13. 13.

    Pereira JA, Oliveira I, Sousa A, Ferreira I, Bento A, Estevinho A (2008) Bioactive properties and chemical composition of six walnut (Juglans regia L.) cultivars. Food Chem Toxicol 46:2103–2111

  14. 14.

    Tapia MI, Sánchez-Morgado JR, García-Parra J, Ramírez R, Hernández T, González-Gómez D (2013) Comparative study of the nutritional and bioactive compounds content of four walnut (Juglans regia L.) cultivars. J Food Compos Anal 31:232–237

  15. 15.

    Kafkas E, Burgut A, Ozcan H, Ozcan A, Sutyemez M, Kafkas S, Türemis N (2017) Fatty acid, total phenol and tocopherol profiles of some walnut cultivars: a comparative study. Food Nutr Sci 8(12):1074–1084

  16. 16.

    Vu DC, Vo PH, Coggeshall MV, Lin CH (2018) Identification and characterization of phenolic compounds in black walnut kernels. J Agric Food Chem 66(17):4503–4511

  17. 17.

    Gharibzahedi SMT, Mousavi SM, Hamedi M, Khodaiyan F (2012) Comparative analysis of new Persian walnut cultivars: nut/kernel geometrical, gravimetrical, frictional and mechanical attributes and kernel chemical composition. Sci Hortic 135:202–209

  18. 18.

    Popescu R, Ionete RE, Botoran OR, Costinel D, Bucura F, Geana EI, Άlabedallat YFJ, Botu M (2019) 1H-NMR profiling and carbon isotope discrimination as tools for the comparative assessment of walnut (Juglans regia L.) cultivars with various geographical and genetic origins—a preliminary study. Molecules 24(7):1378

  19. 19.

    Esteki M, Farajmand B, Amanifar S, Barkhordari R, Ahadiyan Z, Dashtaki E, Mohammadlou M, Vander Heyden Y (2017) Classification and authentication of Iranian walnuts according to their geographical origin based on gas chromatographic fatty acid fingerprint analysis using pattern recognition methods. Chemometr Intell Lab 171:251–258

  20. 20.

    Nkwonta CG, Alamar MC, Landahl S, Terry LA (2016) Effects of postharvest storage and processing techniques on the main fatty acids in the profile of oil extracted from African walnut (Tetracarpidium conophorum Mull. Arg.). J Food Compos Anal 45:87–94

  21. 21.

    AOAC (2000) Official methods of analysis of AOAC International. 17th, ed. by Horwitz W. Arlington, VA

  22. 22.

    Sze-Tao KWC, Sathe SK (2000) Walnuts (Juglans regia L): proximate composition, protein solubility, protein amino acid composition and protein in vitro digestibility. J Sci Food Agric 80:1393–1401

  23. 23.

    Savage GP (2001) Chemical composition of walnuts (Juglans regia L.) grown in New Zealand. Plant Foods Hum Nutr 56:75–82

  24. 24.

    Zhai MZ, Wang D, Tao XD, Wang ZY (2015) Fatty acid compositions and tocopherol concentrations in the oils of 11 varieties of walnut (Juglans regia L.) grown at Xinjiang, China. J Hortic Sci Biotechnol 90:715–718

  25. 25.

    Vaidya B, Choe E (2011) Stability of tocopherols and lutein in oil extracted from roasted or unroasted mustard seeds during the oil oxidation in the dark. Food Sci Biotechnol 20:193–199

  26. 26.

    Poggetti L, Ermacora P, Cipriani G, Pavan F, Testolin R (2017) Morphological and carpological variability of walnut germplasm (Juglans regia L.) collected in north-eastern Italy and selection of superior genotypes. Sci Hortic 225:615–619

  27. 27.

    Bayazit S (2012) Determination of relationships among kernel percentage and yield characteristics in Turkish walnut genotypes by correlation and path analysis. J Anim Plant Sci 22:513–517

  28. 28.

    Brufau G, Boatella J, Rafecas M (2006) Nuts: source of energy and macronutrients. Brit J Nutr 96:24–28

  29. 29.

    Hamasaki H, Hamasaki Y (2017) Nuts for physical health and fitness: a review. AIMS Med Sci 4:441–455

  30. 30.

    Souci SW, Fachmann W, Kraut H (1994) Food composition and nutrition tables. Medpharm. CRC Press, Stuttgart, pp 955–956

Download references

Acknowledgements

This work was supported by Key Research and Development Program of Shandong Province (2019GNC106081) and Science and Technology Innovation Project of Jinan’s Top Ten Agricultural Characteristic Industry (Nanshan Walnut). The authors are grateful to Industry Revitalization and Scientific Innovation Center of Walnut in Jinan for supply of Xiangling and Jizhaomian walnuts, and also grateful to Mr. Yang Li for help in revising our English composition.

Author information

All authors contributed to the study conception and design. Material preparation, data collection and analysis were performed by Binghua Liu, Jing Liang, Dengchao Zhao, Kaifang Wang, Ming Jia and Jing Wang. The first draft of the manuscript was written by Binghua Liu and all authors commented on previous versions of the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

Correspondence to Binghua Liu.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest.

Additional information

Publisher’s Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Liu, B., Liang, J., Zhao, D. et al. Morphological and Compositional Analysis of Two Walnut (Juglans regia L.) Cultivars Growing in China. Plant Foods Hum Nutr (2020) doi:10.1007/s11130-019-00794-y

Download citation

Keywords

  • Amino acids
  • Fatty acids
  • Kernel rate
  • Minerals
  • Protein
  • Walnut