Quality Indicators and Heat Damage of Dried and Cooked Gluten Free Spaghetti

  • N. Gasparre
  • E. Betoret
  • C. M. RosellEmail author
Original Paper


The quality and safety indicators of commercial dried gluten free (GF) pasta were analyzed to investigate, for the first time, the real nutritional intake through the chemical composition and the heat damage during processing by quantification of furosine. Eight samples of GF spaghetti were compared with wheat spaghetti. Dried and cooked GF pasta had lower protein and ash content than wheat spaghetti. GF samples composed solely by corn flour had higher optimal cooking time. Samples with emulsifier showed lower losses during cooking. Considering their composition, no trend could be established to explain textural behavior. Samples constituted merely by corn showed the highest resilience and elasticity. Spaghetti constituted only from corn and rice showed the highest firmness. The furosine content in dried samples ranged between 19 and 134 mg FUR/100 g proteins and in cooked samples ranged between 48 to 360 mg FUR/100 g proteins. Furosine content of GF pasta was in general lower than in wheat pasta, and those differences were even enlarged when comparing them after cooking. The results of PCA indicated it was possible to discriminate GF pasta regarding their technological and nutritional behavior.


Gluten free pasta Cooking quality Heat damage Furosine 



Authors acknowledge the financial support from Spanish Ministry of Science, Innovation and Universities (AGL2014-52928-C2-1, RTI2018-095919-B-C21), the European Regional Development Fund (FEDER) and Generalitat Valenciana (Prometeo 2017/189). N. Gasparre and E. Betoret thank for their predoctoral (P/2017-104) and postdoctoral (IJCI-2016-29679) grants.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare that they do not have any conflict of interest.


  1. 1.
    Marti A, Pagani MA (2013) What can play the role of gluten in gluten free pasta? Trends Food Sci Technol 31(1):63–71. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Cubadda RE, Carcea M, Marconi E, Trivisonno MC (2007) Influence of gluten proteins and drying temperature on the cooking quality of durum wheat pasta. Cereal Chem 84(1):48–55. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Missbach B, Schwingshackl L, Billmann A, Mystek A, Hickelsberger M, Bauer G, König J (2015) Gluten-free food database: the nutritional quality and cost of packaged gluten-free foods. PeerJ 3:e1337. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Segura MEM, Rosell CM (2011) Chemical composition and starch digestibility of different gluten-free breads. Plant Foods Hum Nutr 66(3):224–230. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    De Noni I, Pagani MA (2010) Cooking properties and heat damage of dried pasta as influenced by raw material characteristics and processing conditions. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 50(5):465–472. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Singla RK, Dubey AK, Ameen SM, Montalto S, Parisi S (2018) Analytical methods for the determination of furosine in food products. In: Analytical methods for the assessment of Maillard reactions in foods. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 27–35. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Li HY, Xing L, Wang JQ, Zheng N (2018) Toxicology studies of furosine in vitro/in vivo and exploration of the related mechanism. Toxicol Lett 291:101–111. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    AACC International (2009) Approved methods of snalysis, 11th Ed. AACC International, St. Paul, MN, U.S.A.
  9. 9.
    Tudoricǎ CM, Kuri V, Brennan CS (2002) Nutritional and physicochemical characteristics of dietary fiber enriched pasta. J Agric Food Chem 50(2):347–356. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    ICC (2000) Standard methods of the International Association for Cereal Chemistry. ICC, WienGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Li Y, Liu X, Meng L, Wang Y (2018) Qualitative and quantitative analysis of furosine in fresh and processed ginsengs. J Ginseng Res 42:21–26. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Rybicka I, Gliszczyńska-Świgło A (2017) Minerals in grain gluten-free products. The content of calcium, potassium, magnesium, sodium, copper, iron, manganese, and zinc. J Food Comp Anal 59:61–67. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Resmini P, Pagani MA (1983) Ultrastructure studies of pasta - a review. Food Microstruct 2(1):2Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Marti A, D’Egidio MG, Pagani MA (2016) Pasta: quality testing methods. In: Wrigley C, Corke H, Seetharaman K, Faubion J (eds) Encyclopedia of food grains, 2nd edn. Academic Press, Oxford, pp 161–165. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Schoenlechner R, Drausinger J, Ottenschlaeger V, Jurackova K, Berghofer E (2010) Functional properties of gluten-free pasta produced from amaranth, quinoa and buckwheat. Plant Foods Hum Nutr 65(4):339–349. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Foschia M, Peressini D, Sensidoni A, Brennan MA, Brennan CS (2015) How combinations of dietary fibres can affect physicochemical characteristics of pasta. LWT-Food Sci Technol 61(1):41–46. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Motta Romero H, Santra D, Rose D, Zhang Y (2017) Dough rheological properties and texture of gluten-free pasta based on proso millet flour. J Cereal Sci 74:238–243. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Gallegos-Infante JA, Rocha-Guzman NE, Gonzalez-Laredo RF, Ochoa-Martínez LA, Corzo N, Bello-Perez LA, Medina-Torres L, Peralta-Alvarez LE (2010) Quality of spaghetti pasta containing Mexican common bean flour (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Food Chem 119(4):1544–1549. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Bouasla A, Wójtowicz A, Zidoune MN (2017) Gluten-free precooked rice pasta enriched with legumes flours: physical properties, texture, sensory attributes and microstructure. LWT-Food Sci Technol 75:569–577. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Giannetti V, Boccacci Mariani M, Mannino P, Testani E (2014) Furosine and flavour compounds in durum wheat pasta produced under different manufacturing conditions: multivariate chemometric characterization. LWT-Food Sci Techol 56(1):15–20. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Doxastakis G, Papageorgiou M, Mandalou D, Irakli M, Papalamprou E, D’Agostina A, Resta D, Boschin G, Arnoldi A (2007) Technological properties and non-enzymatic browning of white lupin protein enriched spaghetti. Food Chem 101(1):57–64. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Erbersdobler HF, Somoza V (2007) Forty years of furosine - forty years of using Maillard reaction products as indicators of the nutritional quality of foods. Mol Nutr Food Res 51(4):423–430. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Alamprese C, Casiraghi E, Rossi M (2008) Structural and cooking properties of fresh egg pasta as a function of pasteurization treatment intensity. J Food Eng 89(1):1–7. CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Agrochemistry and Food Technology (IATA-CSIC)PaternaSpain

Personalised recommendations