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Analysis of Wild Raspberries (Rubus idaeus L.): Optimization of the Ultrasonic-Assisted Extraction of Phenolics and a New Insight in Phenolics Bioaccessibility

  • Nevena R. Mihailović
  • Vladimir B. Mihailović
  • Andrija R. Ćirić
  • Nikola Z. Srećković
  • Mirjana R. Cvijović
  • Ljubinka G. JoksovićEmail author
Original Paper
  • 46 Downloads

Abstract

A simple and efficient ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE) technique was developed in order to find optimal conditions for the extraction of total phenolic compounds, flavonoids and anthocyanins in wild raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) fruits. Several extraction variables, including methanol composition (v/v, %), solid-solvent ratio (g/mL), time (min) and extraction temperature (°C) were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM). Under optimal conditions for extraction, the total phenolics were found in the concentration of 383 mg GAE/100 g of fresh fruit weight, while HPLC-PDA analysis of the optimized extract showed the presence of cyanidin-3-glucoside, cyanidin-3-sophoroside, catechin, gallic and ellagic acid. The experimental values of DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activities were 29.0 and 39.5 μmol Trolox/g of fresh fruit weight, respectively. In vitro simulated gastrointestinal digestion showed great raspberry phenolics stability. Our study assessed the bioaccessible phenolics in wild raspberry fruits and showed optimal conditions for the effective extraction of bioactive compounds for their analysis.

Keywords

Rubus idaeus L. Extraction HPLC-PDA Cyanidin-3-glucoside Antioxidant activity In vitro digestion 

Abbreviations

ABTS

2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid)

CCD

Central composite design

CGE

Cyanidin-3-glucoside equivalents

DPPH

2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl

FW

Fresh weight

GAE

Gallic acid equivalents

HPLC

High performance liquid chromatography

PDA

Photo diode array

Rt

Retention time

RSM

Response surface methodology

RUE

Rutin equivalents

TAC

Total anthocyanins content

TFC

Total flavonoids content

TPC

Total phenolics content

UAE

Ultrasonic-assisted extraction

UV

Ultra violet

Vis

Visible

WRF

Wild raspberry fruit

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work is supported by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development of the Republic of Serbia (Grants no. OI 172016, III 43004 and OI 175039).

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

Human and Animal Studies

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects.

Informed Consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.

Supplementary material

11130_2019_756_MOESM1_ESM.docx (924 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 923 kb)

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of Science, Department of ChemistryUniversity of KragujevacKragujevacSerbia
  2. 2.Faculty of Medicine, Institute for Microbiology and ImmunologyUniversity of BelgradeBelgradeSerbia

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