Plant Foods for Human Nutrition

, Volume 74, Issue 2, pp 210–215 | Cite as

Anthocyanin and Oil Contents, Fatty Acids Profiles and Antioxidant Activity of Mexican Landrace Avocado Fruits

  • Joel E. Corrales-García
  • María del Rosario García-Mateos
  • Eslí Martínez-López
  • Alejandro F. Barrientos-Priego
  • María Carmen Ybarra-Moncada
  • Emmanuel Ibarra-Estrada
  • Sergio M. Méndez-Zúñiga
  • Diana Becerra-MoralesEmail author
Original Paper


Mexican landrace avocados are naturally distributed mainly in high areas of central Mexico, where they have been produced and consumed since pre-Hispanic times. However, trees of these species are being replaced by improved varieties with greater global demand, and many species have been lost due to the destruction of their natural habitats. Many people in Mexico like to consume the pulp and peel of these fruits and have done so since pre-Hispanic times. This is because the peel of Mexican landrace avocados, unlike the peel of Hass avocados, is very thin and flavorful. The peel color may be bluish-purple or dark reddish due to the presence of anthocyanins, which are compounds with antioxidant activity. The objective of this study was to assess the oil and anthocyanin contents and to evaluate the antioxidant activity in fruits of 11 accessions collected from producing-regions of Mexico. The oil content was 16.2 to 32.3 g 100 g−1 in pulp, and the main unsaturated fatty acids were oleic, linoleic and palmitoleic acids, depending on the accession. The anthocyanin contents in peels ranged from 0.64 to 47 mg g−1 fresh weight. The highest antioxidant activity was found in the peel (53.3–307.3 mmol g−1 fresh weight). The results confirm that the pulp and peel of dark-peel Mexican landrace avocados could be important nutraceuticals for humans.


Anthocyanins Antioxidant MUFA Oil Peel PUFA SFA 



Monounsaturated fatty acids


Polyunsaturated fatty acids


Saturated fatty acids


Mass selective detector




Molecular weight


Dilution factor


Molar absorption




Absorbance sample


Absorbance blank


Absorbance control


Analysis of variance


Trolox equivalent

f. w.

Fresh weight



We wish to thank the avocado producers and the Fundación Salvador Sánchez Colín CICTAMEX S.C. Coatepec Harinas, México, who provided fruits. We also thank the Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología (CONACyT) and the Universidad Autónoma Chapingo, México, for supporting this project.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Joel E. Corrales-García
    • 1
  • María del Rosario García-Mateos
    • 2
  • Eslí Martínez-López
    • 1
  • Alejandro F. Barrientos-Priego
    • 2
  • María Carmen Ybarra-Moncada
    • 1
  • Emmanuel Ibarra-Estrada
    • 3
  • Sergio M. Méndez-Zúñiga
    • 1
  • Diana Becerra-Morales
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Posgrado en Ciencia y Tecnología Agroalimentaria, Departamento de Ingeniería AgroindustrialUniversidad Autónoma ChapingoChapingoMexico
  2. 2.Posgrado en Horticultura, Departamento de FitotecniaUniversidad Autónoma ChapingoChapingoMexico
  3. 3.Sistema Nacional de Investigación y Transferencia Tecnológica para el Desarrollo Rural Sustentable (SNITT), SAGARPACuidad de MéxicoMexico

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