Plant Foods for Human Nutrition

, Volume 73, Issue 3, pp 228–234 | Cite as

Effect of Extrusion Conditions and the Optimization of Phenolic Compound Content and Antioxidant Activity of Wheat Bran Using Response Surface Methodology

  • José Rogelio Ramos-Enríquez
  • Benjamín Ramírez-WongEmail author
  • Rosario Maribel Robles-Sánchez
  • Ramón Enrique Robles-Zepeda
  • Gustavo Adolfo González-Aguilar
  • Roberto Gutiérrez-Dorado
Original Paper


The extrusion process (EP) consists of heat and mechanical treatments under different conditions of moisture, shear, and pressure and rapidly causes structural alterations and changes in the functional properties of the extruded material. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of extrusion conditions and optimize the wheat bran extrusion conditions to achieve the greatest content of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity using response surface methodology. The EP factors evaluated were feed moisture (FM) (25–33.54%) and final extrusion temperature (T) (140–180 °C). The properties evaluated in the extruded material were bound total phenol content (BTPC), total phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity (AOX). Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and response surface methodology were used in the evaluation. The determination coefficients, (FM)2 and (T)2, very significantly affected the BTPC and bound 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl content (BDPPHC). The optimization was performed by overlaying two contour plots to predict the best combination regions. The optimized extrusion conditions were the following: FM = 30% and T = 140 °C, which provided BTPC = 3547.01 μgGAE/g (predicted: 3589.3 μgGAE/g) and BDPPHC = 9.5 μmolTE/g (predicted: 10.4 μmolTE/g); and FM = 30% and T = 180 °C, which provided BTPC = 3342.3 μgGAE/g (predicted: 3727.7 μgGAE/g) and BDPPHC = 9.5 μmolTE/g (predicted: 9.3 μmolTE/g). The EP increased the phenolic compounds and AOX, and enhancement of these properties in wheat bran products could make them functional foods.


Wheat Bran Optimization Antioxidant activity 



The authors want to thank Department of Research and Graduate in Food Science of the University of Sonora. The authors also thank to M.C. Ignacio Morales-Rosas for his help in running the extrusion experiments.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that there are no conflicts of interest.

Supplementary material

11130_2018_679_MOESM1_ESM.docx (21 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 21 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • José Rogelio Ramos-Enríquez
    • 1
  • Benjamín Ramírez-Wong
    • 2
    Email author
  • Rosario Maribel Robles-Sánchez
    • 2
  • Ramón Enrique Robles-Zepeda
    • 1
  • Gustavo Adolfo González-Aguilar
    • 3
  • Roberto Gutiérrez-Dorado
    • 4
  1. 1.Departamento de Ciencias Químico BiológicasUniversidad de SonoraHermosilloMexico
  2. 2.Departamento de Investigación y Posgrado en Alimentos (DIPA)Universidad de SonoraHermosilloMexico
  3. 3.Centro de Investigación en Alimentación y Desarrollo (CIAD), A.C.HermosilloMexico
  4. 4.Programa Regional del Noroeste para el Doctorado en BiotecnologíaUniversidad Autónoma de SinaloaCuliacánMexico

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