To move first or not to move first?

  • C. F. LoEmail author
  • D. Kiang


We have investigated the quantization of the multi-player Stackelberg game by proposing an asymmetric quantum entanglement operation. Due to the informational asymmetry between the leaders and followers in the Stackelberg model, it is more natural to have differential quantum entanglement in a multi-player quantum Stackelberg game. It is found that the profit functions considered in the multi-player Stackelberg model display interesting and intriguing patterns as functions of quantum entanglement parameters. In particular, differential quantum entanglement could cause the leaders to lose the first-mover advantage inherent in the classical Stackelberg model. This surprising feature raises an important question: “To move first or not to move first?”


Quantum games Quantum entanglement Quantum strategies Stackelberg oligopoly 



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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Physics, Institute of Theoretical PhysicsThe Chinese University of Hong KongShatinHong Kong SAR

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