Decoherence can help quantum cryptographic security
In quantum key distribution, one conservatively assumes that the eavesdropper Eve is restricted only by physical laws, whereas the legitimate parties, namely the sender Alice and receiver Bob, are subject to realistic constraints, such as noise due to environment-induced decoherence. In practice, Eve too may be bound by the limits imposed by noise, which can give rise to the possibility that decoherence works to the advantage of the legitimate parties. A particular scenario of this type is one where Eve can’t replace the noisy communication channel with an ideal one, but her eavesdropping channel itself remains noiseless. Here, we point out such a situation, where the security of the ping–pong protocol (modified to a key distribution scheme) against a noise-restricted adversary improves under a non-unital noisy channel, but deteriorates under unital channels. This highlights the surprising fact that, contrary to the conventional expectation, noise can be helpful to quantum information processing. Furthermore, we point out that the measurement outcome data in the context of the non-unital channel can’t be simulated by classical noise locally added by the legitimate users.
KeywordsPing–pong protocol QBER Entanglement QKD Quantum noise
VS thanks the Ministry of Human Resource Development, Govt. of India, for offering a doctoral fellowship as a Ph.D. research scholar at Indian Institute of Technology Jodhpur, Rajasthan, India. SB thanks Atul Kumar and Anirban Pathak for useful discussions during the preliminary stage of this work. SB acknowledges support by the Project Number 03(1369)/16/EMR-II funded by Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, New Delhi, India. US and RS thank DST-SERB, Govt. of India, for financial support provided through the Project EMR/2016/004019.
- 5.Sharma, V., Thapliyal, K., Pathak, A., Banerjee, S.: A comparative study of protocols for secure quantum communication under noisy environment: single-qubit-based protocols versus entangled-state-based protocols. Quantum Inf. Process. 15(11), 4681–4710 (2016)MathSciNetCrossRefzbMATHADSGoogle Scholar
- 6.Sharma, V., Sharma, R.: Analysis of spread spectrum in MATLAB. Int. J. Sci. Eng. Res. 5(1), 1899–1902 (2014)Google Scholar
- 7.Wang, G., Shen, D., Chen, G., Pham, K., Blasch, E.: Polarization tracking for quantum satellite communications. In: Sensors and Systems for Space Applications VII, vol. 9085. International Society for Optics and Photonics, p. 90850T (2014)Google Scholar
- 8.Sharma, V., Banerjee, S.: Analysis of Atmospheric Effects on Satellite Based Quantum Communication: A Comparative Study (2017). arXiv:1711.08281
- 41.Li, X.-H., Li, C.-Y., Deng, F.-G., Zhou, P., Liang, Y.-J., Zhou, H.-Y.: Quantum Secure Direct Communication with Quantum Encryption Based on Pure Entangled States. arXiv:quant-ph/0512014 (2005)
- 52.Li, J., Song, D.J., Guo, X.J.: An improved security detection strategy based on w state in ping–pong protocol. Chin. J. Electron. 21, 117–120 (2012)Google Scholar