Prevention Science

, Volume 21, Issue 1, pp 120–130 | Cite as

Sociodemographic and Psychosocial Predictors of VIP Attendance in Smart Beginnings Through 6 Months: Effectively Targeting At-Risk Mothers in Early Visits

  • Elizabeth B. MillerEmail author
  • Caitlin F. Canfield
  • Pamela A. Morris
  • Daniel S. Shaw
  • Carolyn Brockmeyer Cates
  • Alan L. Mendelsohn


Past research on predictors of participation in early childhood parenting programs suggest that families experiencing higher levels of sociodemographic adversity (e.g., younger maternal age, single parenthood, lower income or education) are less likely to participate in parenting programs. This is significant, as it may indicate that those most in need of additional support are the least likely to receive it. Data from a randomized control trial (RCT) of Smart Beginnings, an integrated, tiered model for school readiness, were used to explore predictors of attendance in Video Interaction Project (VIP) through 6 months. VIP is a primary preventive intervention delivered in tandem with pediatric well-child visits, aimed at reducing income-based disparities in early child development through promotion of responsive parent-child interactions. Using Poisson distribution models (N = 403; treatment arm, n = 201), we find that demographic, socioeconomic status (SES), and psychosocial variables are associated with program attendance but not always in the expected direction. While analyses show that first-time mothers have higher levels of program attendance as expected, we find that less-educated mothers and those with lower parenting self-efficacy have higher levels of attendance as well. The latter findings may imply that the VIP intervention is, by some indicators, effectively targeting families who are more challenging to engage and retain. Implications for pediatric-based interventions with population-level accessibility are discussed.


Parent-child Interactions Pediatric-based Participation 



Research reported in this publication was supported by the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development of the National Institutes of Health under Award Number R01HD076390-05. The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the National Institutes of Health.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards. This article does not contain any studies with animals performed by any of the authors.

Informed Consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.


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Copyright information

© Society for Prevention Research 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.New York UniversityNew YorkUSA
  2. 2.New York University School of MedicineNew YorkUSA
  3. 3.University of PittsburghPittsburghUSA
  4. 4.Purchase CollegeState University of New YorkPurchaseUSA

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