Prevention Science

, Volume 19, Issue 7, pp 927–938 | Cite as

A Meta-Analysis of Parenting Practices and Child Psychosocial Outcomes in Trauma-Informed Parenting Interventions after Violence Exposure

  • Sarah Lindstrom JohnsonEmail author
  • Kit Elam
  • Adam A. Rogers
  • Chanler Hilley


Over half of all youth are exposed to violence, which a growing body of literature suggests is associated with a broad range of negative developmental outcomes over the life course. However, best practices for supporting parenting are not widely applied to parents with children exposed to violence-related trauma. This meta-analyses seeks to synthesize the literature base of trauma-informed parenting interventions to better understand their potential impact on parenting and child outcomes. Specifically, 21 trauma-informed parenting interventions were identified that quantitatively assessed intervention effects on parenting and child outcomes. Six meta-analyses were conducted to assess intervention effects on (1) positive parenting practices, (2) negative parenting practices, (3) parenting stress, (4) children’s internalizing problems, (5) children’s externalizing problems, and (6) trauma symptoms, respectively. Moderate to large effect sizes were found for positive parenting practices (d = 0.62) as well as child internalizing problems, externalizing problems, and trauma symptoms (d = 0.48–0.59). Validity tests indicated robust findings for positive parenting and for all child outcomes. Additional moderator analyses support the importance of informed intervention design, showing differential findings by trauma type as well as by duration of the intervention. These findings indicate the value of evidence-based parenting interventions for violence-related trauma and support models of trauma-informed care that situate treatment in the broader social context, particularly the family. Results are discussed with respect to which parenting practices hold the most promise for supporting children exposed to violence-related trauma.


Trauma-informed care Parenting interventions Meta-analysis Review 


Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.

Ethical Approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.

Supplementary material

11121_2018_943_MOESM1_ESM.docx (245 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 245 kb)


*Indicates studies included in the meta-analysis.

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Copyright information

© Society for Prevention Research 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sarah Lindstrom Johnson
    • 1
    Email author
  • Kit Elam
    • 1
  • Adam A. Rogers
    • 2
  • Chanler Hilley
    • 1
  1. 1.T. Denny Sanford School of Social and Family DynamicsArizona State UniversityTempeUSA
  2. 2.School of Family LifeBrigham Young UniversityProvoUSA

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