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Photosynthesis Research

, Volume 139, Issue 1–3, pp 337–358 | Cite as

Distribution of Cd and other cations between the stroma and thylakoids: a quantitative approach to the search for Cd targets in chloroplasts

  • Eugene A. LysenkoEmail author
  • Alexander A. Klaus
  • Alexander V. Kartashov
  • Victor V. Kusnetsov
Original Article
  • 113 Downloads

Abstract

Plant growth and photosynthetic activity are usually inhibited due to the overall action of Cd on a whole organism, though few cadmium cations can invade chloroplasts in vivo. We found that in vivo, the major portion of Cd in barley chloroplasts is located in the thylakoids (80%), and the minor portion is in the stroma (20%). Therefore, the electron-transport chain in the thylakoids would be the likely target for direct Cd action in vivo. In vitro, we found the distribution of Cd to be shifted to the stroma (40–60%). In barley chloroplasts, the major portions of Mg, Fe, Mn, and Cu were found to be located in the thylakoids, and most Ca, Zn, and K in the stroma. This finding was true for both control and Cu- or Fe-treated plants. Treatment with Cd affected the contents of all cations, and the largest portions of Ca and Zn were in the thylakoids. Alterations of the K and Mn contents were caused by Cd, Cu, or Fe treatment; the levels of other cations in chloroplasts were changed specifically by Cd treatment. The quantity of Cd in chloroplasts was small in comparison to that of Mg, Ca, and Fe. In thylakoids, the amount of Cd was similar to that of Cu and comparable to the levels of Zn and Mn. Accordingly, the possible targets for direct Cd action in thylakoids are the Mn cluster, plastocyanin, carbonic anhydrase, or FtsH protease. The quantity of Cd in thylakoids is sufficient to replace a cation nearly completely at one of these sites or partially (20–30%) at many of these sites.

Keywords

Plant Cadmium Cations Chloroplast Thylakoid Stroma Cation distribution 

Abbreviations

EDTA

Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid

Fo′

Minimal Chl fluorescence in light

Fm′

Maximal Chl fluorescence in light

Fs

Steady-state Chl fluorescence

HM

Heavy metal

Me

Metal

NADP+

Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate, oxidized form

OEC

Oxygen evolving complex of PSII

Pc

Plastocyanin

Pm′

Maximal amplitude of P700 change in light

PPO

Polyphenol oxidase

PSI

Photosystem I

PSII

Photosystem II

SD

Standard deviation

SE

Standard error

SOD

Superoxide dismutase

WT

Wild type (not mutant)

Notes

Acknowledgements

The work was supported by Grant No. 14-14-00584 from the Russian Science Foundation.

Supplementary material

11120_2018_528_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (75 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (PDF 75 KB)

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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Plant PhysiologyRussian Academy of SciencesMoscowRussia

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