Powder Metallurgy and Metal Ceramics

, Volume 58, Issue 3–4, pp 204–209 | Cite as

Production of Un-Doped and Er-Doped Y2O3 Thin Films by Electron Beam Evaporation Method

  • Fatma UnalEmail author
  • Kursat Kazmanli

In this study, un-doped and doped yttrium oxide (Y2O3) powders with different erbium concentrations were synthesized using sol-gel method. The synthesized powders were investigated by Raman analysis and the evolution of different peaks associated with Er dopant in Y2O3 structure was clearly observed. Moreover, the powders were deposited on Corning glasses using electron beam (e-beam) evaporation method. The samples were heat-treated at 300 and 400°C temperatures for 6 h. The effects of the heat treatment temperatures and dopant concentrations on the optical properties were investigated. Phase constituents of the thin films were analyzed by X-ray diffraction with a thin film attachment using Cu-Kα radiation. Optical transmittance curves of the films were measured using optical spectrophotometer. Cross sectional morphologies of the films were examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It was observed that Er dopants caused a shift in the transmittance curves to UV region.


Er-doped Y2O3 sol-gel method electron beam evaporation method optical transmittance Raman analysis 


  1. 1.
    T. Minami, “Oxide thin-film electroluminescent devices and materials,” Solid-State Electron., 47, No. 12, 2237–2243 (2003).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    H. Uehara, S. Tokita, J. Kawanaka, D. Konishi, M. Murakami, S. Shimizu, and R. Yasuhara, “Optimization of laser emission at 2.8 μm by Er : Lu2O3 ceramics”, Opt. Express, 26, No. 3, 3497-3507 (2018).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    T.T. Van, J.R. Bargar, and J.P. Chang, “Er coordination in Y2O3 thin films studied by extended x-ray absorption fine structure,” J. Appl. Phys., 100, No. 2, 023115-023115-8 (2006).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    E.E. Brown, U. Hömmerich, A. Bluiett, C. Kucera C.J. Ballato, and S. Trivedi, “Near-infrared and upconversion luminescence in Er : Y2O3 ceramics under 1.5 μm excitation,” J. A. Ceram. Soc., 97, No. 7, 2105–2110 (2014).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Q. Xiao, Y. Liu, L. Liu, R. Li, W. Luo, and X. Chen, “Eu3+-doped In2O3 nanophosphors: electronic structure and optical characterization”, J. Phys. Chem. C, 114, No. 20, 9314–9321 (2010).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    R. Srinivasan, N.R. Yogamalar, J. Elanchezhiyan, R.J. Joseyphus, and A.C. Bose, “Structural and optical properties of europium doped yttrium oxide nanoparticles for phosphor applications,” J. Alloy Compd., 496, Nos. 1–2, 472–477 (2010).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    A.M. Khachatourian, F. Golestani-Fard, H. Sarpoolaky, C. Vogt, E. Vasileva, M. Mensi, S. Popov, and M. Toprak. “Microwave synthesis of Y2O3 : Eu3+ nanophosphors: A study on the influence of dopant concentration and calcination temperature on structural and photoluminescence properties,” J. Lumin., 169, 1–8 (2016).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    T. Nunokawa, O. Odawara, and H. Wada, “Optical properties of highly crystalline Y2O3 : Er,Yb nanoparticles prepared by laser ablation in water,” Mater. Res. Express, 1, No. 3, 035043 (2014).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    H. Guo, and Y.M. Qiao, “Preparation, characterization, and strong upconversion of monodisperse Y2O3 : Er3+,Yb3+ microspheres,” Opt. Mater., 31, No. 4, 583–589 (2009).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Y. Akita, T. Harada, R. Sasai, K. Tomita, and K. Nishiyama, “Emission properties of Ln (Eu, Tb, Dy, Er)-doped Y2O3 nanoparticles synthesized by surfactant-assembly and their applications in visible color-tuning,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. A, 299, 87–93 (2015).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    M. Back, E. Trave, R. Marin, N. Mazzucco, D. Cristofori, and P. Riello, “Energy Transfer in Bi- and Er-codoped Y2O3 nanocrystals: An effective system for rare earth fluorescence enhancement,” J. Phys. Chem. C, 118, No. 51, 30071–30078 (2014).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Y. Mao, J.Y. Huang, R. Ostroumov, K.L. Wang, and J.P. Chang, “Synthesis and luminescence properties of erbium-doped Y2O3 nanotubes,” J. Phys. Chem. C, 112, No. 7, 2278–2285 (2008).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    S. Park, S. Kim, S.K. Chang, and Y.H. Kim, “Fabrication and characterization of Bi-doped Y2O3 phosphor thin films by RF magnetron sputtering,” Thin Solid Films, 600, 83–89 (2016).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Y. Qiao, and H. Guo, “Upconversion properties of Y2O3 : Er films prepared by sol-gel method,” J. Rare Earths, 27, No. 3, 406–410 (2009).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    B.R. Judd, “Optical absorption intensities of rare-earth ions,” Phys. Rev., 127, 750–761 (1962).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    D.L. Dexter, “Possibility of luminescent quantum yields greater than unity,” Phys. Rev., 108, 630–633 (1957).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    R. Salhi, and J.L. Deschanvres, “Efficient upconversion in Er3+ doped Y2O3/Si thin film deposited by aerosol UV-assisted MOCVD process,” J. Lumin., 170, 231–239 (2016).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    V. Singh, P. Haritha, V. Venkatramu, and S.H. Kim, “Efficient visible upconversion luminescence in Er3+ and Er3+/Yb3+ co-doped Y2O3 phosphors obtained by solution combustion reaction,” Spectrochim. Acta A. Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc., 126, 306–311 (2014).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    A.N. Meza-Rocha, E.F. Huerta, U. Caldino, S. Carmona-Tellez, M. Bettinelli, A. Speghini, S. Pelli, G.C. Righini, and C. Falcony, “Dependence of the up-conversion emission of Li+ co-doped Y2O3 : Er3+ films with dopant concentration,” J. Lumin., 167, 352–359 (2015).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    T. Liu, Y. Cao, M. Zhu, T. Zhang, J. Zheng, and X. Li, “Preparation and optical properties of YH2 : Er2+ and Y2O3 : Er3+ nanoparticles,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol., 13, No. 6, 3959–3965 (2013).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    L. Liu, H. Jiang, Y. Chen, X. Zhang, Z. Zhang, and Y. Wang, “Power dependence of upconversion luminescence of Er3+ doped yttria nanocrystals and their bulk counterpart,” J. Lumin., 143, 423–431 (2013).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    H. Lu, W. Gillin, and I. Hernandez, “Concentration dependence of the up- and down-conversion emission colours of Er3+-doped Y2O3: a time-resolved spectroscopy analysis,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 16, No. 38, 20957–20963 (2014).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    A.N. Gruzintsev, “Anti-stokes luminescence of Y2O3 : Er,” Inorg. Mater., 50, No. 1, 58–62 (2014).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    D. Li, M. Jiang, S. Cueff, C.M. Dodson, S. Karaveli, and R. Zia, “Quantifying and controlling the magnetic dipole contribution to 1.5 μm light emission in erbium-doped yttrium oxide,” Phys. Rev. B, 89, No. 16, 161409 (2014).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Y. Kumar, M. Pal, M. Herrera, and X. Mathew, “Effect of Eu ion incorporation on the emission behavior of Y2O3 nanophosphors: A detailed study of structural and optical properties,” Opt. Mater., 60, 159–168 (2016).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Y. Repelin, C. Proust, E. Husson, and J.M. Beny, “Vibrational spectroscopy of the C-form of yttrium sesquioxide,” J. Solid State Chem., 118, No. 1, 163–169 (1995).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    V.V. Osipov, V.I. Solomonov, A.V. Spirina, E.G. Vovkotrub, and V.N. Strekalovskii, “Raman scattering and luminescence of yttria nanopowders and ceramics,” Opt. Spectrosc., 116, No. 6, 946–955 (2014).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    M. Yashima, J.H. Lee, M. Kakihana, and M. Yoshimura, “Raman spectral characterization of existing phases in the Y2O3–Nb2O5 system,” J. Phys. Chem. Solid., 58, No. 10, 1593–1597 (1997).CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Hitit University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Metallurgical and Materials EngineeringCorumTurkey
  2. 2.Istanbul Technical University, Faculty of Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering, Department of Metallurgical and Materials EngineeringIstanbulTurkey

Personalised recommendations