Advertisement

Powder Metallurgy and Metal Ceramics

, Volume 58, Issue 3–4, pp 170–183 | Cite as

Some Trends in Improving WC–Co Hardmetals. II. Functionally Graded Hardmetals

  • A.V. LaptievEmail author
REFRACTORY AND CERAMIC MATERIALS
  • 10 Downloads

Research efforts on the development of hardmetals with a gradient structure, i.e., a structure that changes smoothly over the cross-section or volume of a sample, have been analyzed. These materials are called functionally graded hardmetals and are characterized by increased wear resistance at set hardness. Three approaches to the development of functionally graded hardmetals that are implemented in Ukraine, Europe, and the USA are discussed. These approaches are based on one phenomenon, such as the migration of molten cobalt from one to another hardmetal region that differs in the size of tungsten carbide particles, liquid phase amount, and carbon content. The approaches differ by process features in preparing and sintering the samples that acquire a gradient structure. In addition, different methods to produce hardmetals with a gradient structure are described. New capabilities of the extrusion process for the production of parts with uneven cross-sectional structure are studied. Conditions of obtaining long-length products from hardmetals with a cellular or ‘honeycomb’ structure by extrusion of structural elements through a die with openings of specific shape are presented.

Keywords

hardmetal functionally graded material wear resistance hardness fracture toughness 

References

  1. 1.
    A.V. Laptiev, “Some trends in improving WC–Co hardmetals. I. Hybrid and coarse-grained hardmetals,” Powder Metall. Met. Ceram., 58, No. 1–2, 42–57 (2019).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    N. Cherradi, A. Kawasaki, and M. Gasik, “Worldwide trends in functional gradient materials research and development,” Compos. Eng., 4, No. 8, 883–894 (1994).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    M.N. Dovbishchuk, V.K. Vitryanyuk, A.N. Krushinskii, and I.M. Mukha, “Feasibility of manufacture of hard-alloy parts with variable physicochemical properties,” Powder Metall. Met. Ceram., 5, No. 9, 709–712 (1966).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Yu.P. Linenko, A.F. Lisovskii, L.N. Virovets, and E.D. Kovalenko, “Wear resistance of cutters reinforced with hardmetal inserts with different cobalt contents across the thickness,” in: Rock Cutting Tools [in Russian], Tekhnika, Kyiv (1970), pp. 73–78.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    M.B. Bever and P.E. Duwez, “Gradients in composite materials,” Mater. Sci. Eng., 10, 1–8 (1972).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    A.F. Lisovskii and M.M. Babich, “Redistribution of molten cobalt in powder metallurgical WC–Co hard alloys,” Powder Metall. Met. Ceram., 11, No. 2, 124–128 (1972).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    A.F. Lisovskii, V.P. Bondarenko, A.S. Vishnevskii, and A.F. Nikityuk, “Kinetics of penetration of molten cobalt into hard alloys,” Powder Metall. Met. Ceram., 13, No. 6, 496–498 (1974).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    A.F. Lisovskii, Migration of Molten Metals in Sintered Composites [in Russian], Naukova Dumka, Kyiv (1984), p. 256.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    A.F. Lisovskii, “Properties of sintered hard alloys WC–Ni with inhomogeneous structure,” Powder Metall. Met. Ceram., 27, No. 11, 861–866 (1988).Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    A.F. Lisovskii and N.V. Tkachenko, “Development of gradient structures in sintered hard alloys,” Sverkhtverd. Mater., No. 1, 27–34 (1995).Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    A.F. Lisovskii and S.A. Sokol’nik, “Production of gradient structures in sintered TiC–(Ni, Mo) hard alloys on interaction with molten metals,” Powder Metall. Met. Ceram., 36, Nos. 9–10, 505–509 (1997).Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    A.F. Lisovskii, Structurization of Composite Materials in Molten Metal Processing [in Russian], Naukova Dumka, Kyiv (2008), p. 199.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    A.F. Lisovskii, “Production of gradient structure in sintered hard alloys,” Sverkhtverd. Mater., No. 4, 36–52 (2010).Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    C. Colin, L. Durant, N. Favrot, J. Besson, G. Barbier, and D. Delannay, “Processing of composition gradient WC/Co cermets,” in: H. Bildstein and R. Eck (eds.), Proc. 13th Int. Plansee Seminar, Metallwerk Plansee, Reutte (1993), Vol. 2, pp. 522–536.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    M. Gasik, V. Jarvela, K. Lilius, and S. Stromberg, “Isotropic and gradient hard metals fabricated by infiltration,” in: H. Bildstein and R. Eck (eds.), Proc. 13th Int. Plansee Seminar, Metallwerk Plansee, Reutte (1993), Vol. 2, pp. 553–561.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    K. Tsuda, A. Ikegaya, K. Isobe, N. Kitagawa, and T. Nomura, “Development of functionally graded sintered hard materials,” in: Proc. 1996 European Conference on Advances in Hard Materials Production, Stockholm, Sweden, May 27–29 (1996), pp. 45–52.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    M.M. Gasik, Y.D. Bilotsky, N. Cherradi, and A. Kawasaki, “New approach to the solution of the local stress problem in FGM hardmetals,” in: Proc. 1996 European Conference on Advances in Hard Materials Production, Stockholm, Sweden, May 27–29 (1996), pp. 263–269.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Nomura Toshio, Hideki Moriguchi, Keiichi Tsuda, Kazutaka Isobe, Akihiko Ikegaya, and Kiyoko Moriyama, “Material design method for the functionally graded cemented carbide tool,” Int. J. Refract. Met. Hard Mater., 17, No. 6, 397–404 (1999).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    O. Eso, Z.Z. Fang, and A. Griffo, “Liquid phase sintering of functionally graded WC–Co composites,” Int. J. Refract. Met. Hard Mater., 23, No. 4–6, 233–241 (2005).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    O. Eso, Z.Z. Fang, and A. Griffo, “Kinetics of cobalt gradient formation during the liquid phase sintering of functionally graded WC–Co,” Int. J. Refract. Met. Hard Mater., 25, No. 4, 286–292 (2007).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    O. Eso, P. Fan, and Z.Z. Fang, “A kinetic model for cobalt gradient formation during liquid phase sintering of functionally graded WC–Co,” Int. J. Refract. Met. Hard Mater., 26, No. 2, 91–97 (2008).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    P. Fan, O. Eso, Z.Z. Fang, and H.Y. Sohn, “Effect of WC particle size on Co distribution in liquid-phasesintered functionally graded WC–Co composite,” Int. J. Refract. Met. Hard Mater., 26, No. 2, 98–105 (2008).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    P. Fan and Z.Z. Fang, “Numerical simulation of kinetics of the cobalt gradient change in WC–Co during liquid phase sintering,” Int. J. Refract. Met. Hard Mater., 27, No. 1, 37–42 (2009).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    P. Fan, J. Guo, Z.Z. Fang, and P. Prichard, “Design of cobalt gradient via controlling carbon content and WC grain size in liquid-phase-sintered WC–Co composite,” Int. J. Refract. Met. Hard Mater., 27, No. 2, 256–260 (2009).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    P. Fan, Z.Z. Fang, and J. Guo, “A review of liquid phase migration and methods for fabrication of functionally graded cemented tungsten carbide,” Int. J. Refract. Met. Hard Mater., 36, 2–9 (2013).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    I. Konyashin, S. Hlawatschek, B. Ries, F. Lachmann, A. Sologubenko, and T. Weirich, “A new approach to fabrication of gradient WC–Co hardmetals,” Int. J. Refract. Met. Hard Mater., 28, No. 2, 228–237 (2010).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    I. Konyashin, B. Ries, F. Lachmann, and A.T. Fry, “Gradient WC-Co hardmetals: theory and practice,” Int. J. Refract. Met. Hard Mater., 36, 10–21 (2013).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Mirva Eriksson, Mohamed Radwan, and Zhijian Shen, “Spark plasma sintering of WC, cemented carbide and functional graded materials,” Int. J. Refract. Met. Hard Mater., 36, 31–37 (2013).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    M. Tokita, “Large-size WC/Co functionally graded materials fabricated by spark plasma sintering (SPS) method,” Mater. Sci. Forum, 423–425, 39–44 (2003).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Wei Lin, Xin De Bai, Yun Han Ling, Zuoz Hong Jiang, and Zhi Peng Xie, “Fabrication and properties of axisymmetric WC/Co functionally graded hard metal via microwave sintering,” Mater. Sci. Forum, 423–425, 55–58 (2003).Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Siwen Tang, Deshun Liu, Pengnan Li, Lingli Jiang, Wenhui Liu, Yuqiang Chen, and Qiulin Niu, “Microstructure and mechanical properties of functionally gradient cemented carbides fabricated by microwave heating nitriding sintering,” Int. J. Refract. Met. Hard Mater., 58, 137–142 (2016).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Yigao Yuan, Jianjun Ding, Yankun Wang, Qiong Wang, Weiquan Sun, and Jiasheng Bai, “Optimization of process parameters for fabricating functionally gradient WC–Co composites,” Int. J. Refract. Met. Hard Mater., 43, 109–114 (2014).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Xiangkui Zhou, Kai Wang, Zhifeng Xu, Tie Liu, Guojian Li, Qiang Wang, and Jicheng He, “Effect of powder particle size on gradient formation and grain growth in ultrafine crystalline gradient cemented carbide,” Int. J. Refract. Met. Hard Mater., 56, 63–68 (2016).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    M. Schwarzkopf, H.E. Exner, H.F. Fischmeister, and W. Schintlmeister, “Kinetics of compositional modification of (W, Ti)C–WC–Co alloy surfaces,” Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 105–106, 225–231 (1988).Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Yong Liu, Xiaofeng Li, Jianhua Zhou, Kun Fu, Wei Wei, Meng Du, and Xinfu Zhao, “Effects of Y2O3 addition on microstructures and mechanical properties of WC–Co functionally graded cemented carbides,” Int. J. Refract. Met. Hard Mater., 50, 53–58 (2015).Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Xiaofeng Li, Yong Liu, Bin Liu, and Jianhua Zhou, “Effects of submicron WC addition on structures, kinetics and mechanical properties of functionally graded cemented carbides with coarse grains,” Int. J. Refract. Met. Hard Mater., 56, 132–138 (2016).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    José Garcia, “Investigations on kinetics of formation of fcc-free surface layers on cemented carbides with Fe–Ni–Co binders,” Int. J. Refract. Met. Hard Mater., 29, 306–311 (2011).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    José Garcia, “Influence of Fe–Ni–Co binder composition on nitridation of cemented carbides,” Int. J. Refract. Met. Hard Mater., 30, 114–120 (2012).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    M. Mohammadpour, P. Abachi, and K. Pourazarang, “Effect of cobalt replacement by nickel on functionally graded cemented carbonitrides,” Int. J. Refract. Met. Hard Mater., 30, 42–47 (2012).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    S. Norgren, J. García, A. Blomqvist, and L. Yin, “Trends in the P/M hard metal industry,” Int. J. Refract. Met. Hard Mater., 48, 31–45 (2015).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Li Zhang, Yuan-jie Wang, Xian-wang Yu, Shu Chen, and Xiang-jun Xiong, “Crack propagation characteristic and toughness of functionally graded WC–Co cemented carbide,” Int. J. Refract. Met. Hard Mater., 26, No. 4, 295–300 (2008).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Gunter Ostermann, Hartwig Pietsch, and Alfred Sprang, Method of Production Composite Hard Metal Bodies, Patent Application GB 2017153A UK: B22F 7/06, C7D 8J 8Y 8Z5 A1, Krupp GMBH, priority March 13, 1978; publ. October 3, 1979.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Didrik Wilhelm Haglund, Rockdrill Cutting Insert of Hard Metal, Patent No. 2,842,342 USA: Cl. 255-63; appl. July 6, 1955; patented July 8, 1958.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Jimmy D. Gardner, Cutter Insert for Rock Bits, Patent No. 3,693,736 USA: E21c 13/01, 175/410; September 4, 1969; September 26, 1972.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Donald S. Stroud, Cutting Tools, Patent No. 4,854,405 USA: F21B 10/52, 175/374, 175/410; January 4, 1988; August 8, 1989.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Terry W. Kirk, Brian R. Nussbaum, and Jon W. Bitler, Hard Composite Cutting Insert and Method of Making the Same, Patent Application No. 2007/0227782 A1 USA: E2IB 10/56, 175/420.1, 175/426; March 31, 2006; October 4, 2007.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Z.Z. Fang, A. Griffo, B. White, G. Lockwood, D. Belnap, G. Hilmas, and J. Bitler, “Fracture resistant super hard materials and hardmetals composite with functionally designed microstructure,” Int. J. Refract. Met. Hard Mater., 19, No. 4–6, 453–459 (2001).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    S.E. Landwehr, G.E. Hilmas, B. White, A. Griffo, and J. Bitler, “Wear characteristics of functionally designed cellular cemented carbides produced by coextrusion,” Int. J. Refract. Met. Hard Mater., 25, No. 3, 199–206 (2007).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Z. Fang, G. Lockwood, and A. Griffo, “A dual composite of WC–Co,” Metal. Mater. Trans. A, 30A, 3231–3238 (1999).Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    J.R. Lizenby, K.J. Lizenby, and L.J. Barnard, Self-Sealing Fluid Die, Patent No. 4656002, USA: B22F 1/00, 419/10, 264/65; October 3, 1985; April 7, 1987.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    E.M. Dubensky and R.T. Nilsson, Dense Fine Grained Monotungsten Carbide-Transition Metal Cemented Carbide Body and Preparation Thereof, US Patent 5773735, 1996.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Frantsevich Institute for Problems of Materials ScienceNational Academy of Sciences of UkraineKyivUkraine

Personalised recommendations