Powder Metallurgy and Metal Ceramics

, Volume 57, Issue 7–8, pp 431–446 | Cite as

Modern Manufacturing of Powder-Metallurgical Products with High Density and Performance by Press–Sinter Technology

  • V.S. KruzhanovEmail author

The professional life of Yakov Evseevich Geguzin has always been associated with powder metallurgy, which began to develop actively as an industry and as a scientific area in the 1940s. Being among the founders of the science of sintering, Yakov Evseevich always showed interest in its practical applications, contributing to their development. He gave advice to specialists in factories and institutes, taught future production workers in lecture rooms and laboratories, and described all these interesting processes with elegance, simplicity, and rigor in popular science books and scientific monographs. I was fortunate to be a student of Yakov Evseevich and to work later for many years in powder metallurgy. When I received some new results, I always asked myself what would Yakov Evseevich have said about this, how would he evaluate this or that result, what calculation would he make or what simple assessment would he give to explain a particular phenomenon, with what process from a completely different field would he compare it. I am pleased to have the opportunity to present a brief overview of the successes of powder metallurgy in recent decades in the journal in which I had the honor, in co-authorship with Ya.E. Geguzin, to publish my first scientific article.


compaction–sintering powder atomization and annealing press-ready blends highdensity compaction high-temperature sintering post-processing of sintered components automotive applications 


  1. 1.
    L. Aboussouan, “Overview of the status and trends in the European PM Industry,” in: Proc. 2018 EPMA (European Powder Metallurgy Association) Board & Council Meetings (March 22, 2018, Brussels, Belgium), EPMA (2018), p. 57.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Vision 2025—Future Development for the European PM Industry, EPMA (2015), p. 30.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    PM Industry Roadmap, MPIF (Metal Powder Industries Federation), USA (2017), p. 24.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    G.F. Bocchini, “The influence of porosity on the characteristics of sintered materials,” Int. J. Powder Metall., 22, No. 3, 185–202 (1986).Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    V. Arnhold, K. Dollmeier, V. Kruzhanov, and R. Lindenau, “Advanced techniques for the production of high density powder metal parts,” in: R. Ratzi and H. Danninger (eds.), Proc. Int. Conf. PM 2004 (Vienna, October 2004), Vienna, Austria (2004), Vol. 1, pp. 558563.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    ASM Handbook, Vol. 7: Powder Metallurgy, ASM (Materials Information Society) International, Ohio, USA (2015), p. 312.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    P. Lindskog, Global Automotive Manufacturing and Technology, London (2003), pp. 15.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    R. Lummer, Verfahren zur Glühung von Eisenpulver [Process for the Annealing of Iron Powder], Patent DE3722956C1, Mannesmann AG (1988), p. 2.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    D. Johnen, V. Linnemann, and G. Huber, Method and Arrangement for Reduction Annealing of Iron Powder, Patent US5395463, Mannesmann AG (1995), p. 11.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    V. Kruzhanov and V. Arnhold, “Energy consumption in iron powder production,” in: Proc. Int. World Congress PM 2016 (Hamburg, Germany, October 2016), Hamburg (2016).Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    F. Schüth, “Hydrogen: economics and its role in biorefining,” R. Rinaldi (ed.), Catalytic Hydrogenation for Biomass Valorization, UK (2015).Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    H. Danninger, C. Gierl, S. Kremel, G. Leitner, K. Jaenicke-Roessler, and Y. Yu, “Degassing and deoxidation process during sintering of unalloyed and alloyed PM steels,” Powder Metall. Prog., 2, No. 3, 125–140 (2002).Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    ASM Handbook, Vol. 7: Powder Metallurgy, ASM (Materials Information Society) International, Ohio, USA (2015), p. 313.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    V. Kruzhanov, K. Dollmeier, and I. Donaldson, “Formteile mit hoher Dichte über Pressen und Sintern,” in: Pulvermetallurgie in Wissenschaft und Praxis [Powder Metallurgy in Science and Practice], Witten, Deutschland (2005), Vol. 21, pp. 5368.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Process Routes and Economic Considerations, Höganäs Handbook for Sintered Components. URL: (Access from 2013).
  16. 16.
    W.B. James, “Powder forging,” Rev. Part. Mater., 2, 173214 (1994).Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    L. Wimbert, K. Dollmeier, V. Kruzhanov, and R. Lindenau, “Advanced lubricants—a complex challenge for powder metallurgy, in: Proc. Int. Conf. PM 2010, Florence, Italy (2010).Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    ASM Handbook, Vol. 7: Powder Metallurgy, ASM (Materials Information Society) International, Ohio, USA (2015), p. 384.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    P. Sokolowski, B. Lindsley, and S. Zhu, “Diffusion-alloyed steels for high performance applications,” in: Proc. EuroPM 2017, Milan, Italy (2017).Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    C. Schade, M. Marucci, and F. Hanejko, “Improved powder performance through binder treatment of premixes,” in: Proc. Conf. PowderMet 2011, San Francisco, USA (2011).Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    S. Karamchedu, E. Hryha, and L. Nyborg, “Influence of process parameters on the delubrication of PM steels,” Powder Metall. Prog., 11, 90–96 (2011).Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    S. Bockel-Macal, H. Davin, D. Domergue, B. Hofmann, and V. Kruzhanov, “Industrial performance of low reactive atmospheres on sintering furnaces,” in: Proc. Int. Conf. PM 2004, Vienna, Austria, 2, 211–216 (2004).Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    G.F. Bocchini, “Influence of controlled atmospheres on the proper sintering of carbon steels,” Powder Metall. Prog., 4, 1–34 (2004).Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    V. Kruzhanov, K. Dollmeier, and L. Wimbert, “Entwicklungen beim Hochtemperatursintern von PMStählen,” in: Pulvermetallurgie in Wissenschaft und Praxis [Powder Metallurgy in Science and Practice], Witten, Deutschland (2006), Vol. 22, pp. 111–133.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    L. Blanco, M. Campos, and J.M. Torralba, “Porosity evaluation in high performance steels,” in: Proc. Euro PM 2003, Valencia, Spain (2003), Vol. 1, pp. 256–261.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    B. Leupold, V. Janzen, F. Wattenberg, and A. Zeller, “PM automotive gears with tailored performance,” in: Proc. Int. World Congress PM 2016, Hamburg, Germany (2016).Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Spotlight on PM—Case Studies, EPMA (European Powder Metallurgy Association), 1st Ed. (2013), p. 32.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.PM ConsultingRemscheidGermany

Personalised recommendations