Carotenoid Accumulation and Distinct Transcript Profiling of Structural Genes Involved in Carotenoid Biosynthesis in Celery
- 48 Downloads
Carotenoids, a diverse group of pigments, participate in various biological processes in plants and contribute to an important quality trait for many plants. Celery is an important leafy vegetable crop, and the leaf is the main edible organ. However, the molecular mechanism of carotenoid biosynthetic pathway in celery has yet to be characterized. Here, two celery varieties with obviously different appearances, ‘Liuhe yellow heart celery’ and ‘Ventura’, were selected to study the carotenoid accumulation and distinct transcript profiling of structural genes involved in carotenoid biosynthesis. The contents of lutein, β-carotene, and α-carotene of leaf blades and petioles of celery were determined by UPLC at 30, 45, and 60 days after germination (DAG). In the two celery varieties, the highest lutein content was 14.56 mg/g DW (dry weight) in leaf blades of ‘Ventura’ at 45 DAG. The lowest lutein content was 1.56 mg/g DW in petioles of ‘Liuhe yellow heart celery’ at 60 DAG. The highest β-carotene content was 0.42 mg/g DW in leaf blades of ‘Ventura’ at 45 DAG. The lowest β-carotene content was 0.07 mg/g DW in petioles of ‘Liuhe yellow heart celery’ at 45 DAG. Lutein and β-carotene contents in leaf blades were higher than that in petioles. The contents of lutein and β-carotene in ‘Ventura’ were higher than that in ‘Liuhe yellow heart celery’. The relative expression levels of structural genes involved in carotenoid biosynthesis were also detected. The contents of lutein and β-carotene were correlated with the transcription level of genes involved in carotenoid biosynthesis. The relative expression of AgPSY1 and AgLCYE in ‘Ventura’ was significantly higher than that in ‘Liuhe yellow heart celery’ at three growth stages. The content of α-carotene could not detected in leaves of the two celery cultivars. These results provide potential insights into carotenoid biosynthetic pathway in celery during growth and development.
KeywordsCelery Carotenoids Lutein β-Carotene α-Carotene Gene expression
one-way analysis of variance
day after germination
quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction
ultra performance liquid chromatography
AS Xiong and JW Li conceived and designed the experiments. JW Li, J Ma, K Feng, and JX Liu performed the experiments. JW Li and F Que. analyzed the data. AS Xiong contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools. JW Li wrote the paper. AS Xiong and K Feng revised the paper. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
The research was supported by the New Century Excellent Talents in University (NCET-11-0670); National Natural Science Foundation of China (31272175); Jiangsu Natural Science Foundation (BK20130027); and Priority Academic Program Development of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
- Chen MD, Zhu HS, Wen QF, Hong-Qi MA, Lin YZ (2013) Determination of carotenoids in strawberry by UPLC. J Fruit Sci 30(4):706–711Google Scholar
- Cunningham FX Jr, Chamovitz D, Misawa N, Gantt E, Hirschberg J (1993) Cloning and functional expression in Escherichia coli of a cyanobacterial gene for lycopene cyclase, the enzyme that catalyzes the biosynthesis of beta-carotene. FEBS Lett 328(1–2):130–138. https://doi.org/10.1016/0014-5793(93)80980-9 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Diretto G, Tavazza R, Welsch R, Pizzichini D, Mourgues F, Papacchioli V, Beyer P, Giuliano G (2006) Metabolic engineering of potato tuber carotenoids through tuber-specific silencing of lycopene epsilon cyclase. BMC Plant Biol 6(13):13. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2229-6-13 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Feng K, Xu ZS, Liu JX, Li JW, Wang F, Xiong AS (2018) Isolation, purification, and characterization of AgUCGalT1, a galactosyltransferase involved in anthocyanin galactosylation in purple celery (Apium graveolens L.). Planta 247(6):1363–1375. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00425-018-2870-5 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Jia XL, Wang GL, Xiong F, Yu XR, Xu ZS, Wang F, Xiong AS (2015) De novo assembly, transcriptome characterization, lignin accumulation, and anatomic characteristics: novel insights into lignin biosynthesis during celery leaf development. Sci Rep 5:8259. https://doi.org/10.1038/srep08259 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Liu G, Yang X, Xu J, Zhang M, Hou Q, Zhu L, Huang Y, Xiong AS (2017) Morphological observation, RNA-Seq quantification, and expression profiling: novel insight into grafting-responsive carotenoid biosynthesis in watermelon grafted onto pumpkin rootstock. Acta Biochim Biophys Sin 49(3):216–227. https://doi.org/10.1093/abbs/gmw132 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Lv P, Li N, Liu H, Gu H, Zhao WE (2015) Changes in carotenoid profiles and in the expression pattern of the genes in carotenoid metabolisms during fruit development and ripening in four watermelon cultivars. Food Chem 174:52–59. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2014.11.022 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Meier S, Tzfadia O, Vallabhaneni R, Gehring C, Wurtzel ET (2011) A transcriptional analysis of carotenoid, chlorophyll and plastidial isoprenoid biosynthesis genes during development and osmotic stress responses in Arabidopsis thaliana. BMC Syst Biol 5:77. https://doi.org/10.1186/1752-0509-5-77 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Prabhala RH, Braune LM, Garewal HS, Watson RR (2010) Influence of beta-carotene on immune functions. Ann N Y Acad Sci 691(1):262–263. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1749-6632.1993.tb26189.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Tan GF, Wang F, Ma J, Zhang XY, Xiong AS (2017a) Analysis of anthocyanin and apigenin contents and the expression profiles of biosynthesis-related genes in the purple and non-purple varieties of celery. Acta Hortic Sin 44(7):1327–1334Google Scholar
- Welsch R, Arango J, Bär C, Salazar B, Albabili S, Beltrán J, Chavarriaga P, Ceballos H, Tohme J, Beyer P (2010) Provitamin A accumulation in cassava (Manihot esculenta) roots driven by a single nucleotide polymorphism in a phytoene synthase gene. Plant Cell 22(10):3348–3356. https://doi.org/10.1105/tpc.110.077560 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Yu B, Lydiate DJ, Young LW, Schäfer UA, Hannoufa A (2008) Enhancing the carotenoid content of Brassica napus seeds by downregulating lycopene epsilon cyclase. Transgenic Res 17(4):573–585. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11248-007-9131-xTransgenic CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar