Genome-wide transcriptome profiling provides insights into the responses of maize (Zea mays L.) to diazotrophic bacteria
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We applied for the first time a high-throughput transcriptome approach to elucidate biochemical and physiological mechanisms controlling early events in the interaction between maize seedlings and different beneficial diazotrophic bacteria.
mRNA transcriptomes from maize (Zea mays L.) seedlings were characterized seven days after inoculation with Azospirillum brasilense sp245 and Herbaspirillum seropedicae HRC54. The expression profiles of selected genes were validated by quantitative reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction analysis.
Transcriptome profiling revealed a total of 764 and 3595 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in maize when exclusively associated with A. brasilense and H. seropedicae, respectively, whereas 455 DEGs were shared by both treatments. Our results support the modulation of the host nitrogen metabolism and phytohormone responses by both diazotrophic bacteria as well as distinct activation of host immune responses.
Diazotrophic bacteria modulate maize metabolism, with some common responses to both beneficial bacteria, while others are specific to each bacterial species. This study provides a valuable contribution on how these beneficial bacteria might amend host metabolism to improve growth and fitness.
KeywordsPlant-microbe interactions RNA-seq Phytohormones Nitrogen metabolism Cell wall membrane receptors Cytoplasmic receptors
auxin response factor
coiled-coil receptor, nucleotide-binding sites, and leucine-rich repeated domains
counts per million
damage-associated molecular patterns
days after inoculation
differentially expressed genes
indole acetic acid
membrane-based interactome network database
nitrogen use efficiency
pattern recognition receptors
pattern trigger immunity
quantitative reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction
receptor-like cytoplasmic kinases
cysteine receptor-like kinase
recognition peronospora parasítica
toll and interleukin receptor, nucleotide-binding sites, and leucine-rich repeated domains
The research was supported by Instituto Nacional de Ciência de Tecnologia (INCT) in Biological Nitrogen Fixation, Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq), Fundação Carlos Chagas Filho de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (FAPERJ), Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES) and Newton Fund grant (BB/N013476/1). PRH and HGFB were supported by CNPq posdoctoral and PhD fellowships, respectively. TLGC and CAR were supported by FAPERJ posdoctoral fellowships. ASH and PCGF receive support from a CNPq research grant.
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