Long-term rice-rice-rape rotation optimizes 1,2-benzenediol concentration in rhizosphere soil and improves nitrogen-use efficiency and rice growth

  • Sheng Lu
  • Haixing Song
  • Chunyun Guan
  • Joe Eugene Lepo
  • Zhimin Wu
  • Xinhua HeEmail author
  • Zhenhua ZhangEmail author
Regular Article



We examined differences in soil metabolites from the rice root rhizosphere of long-term rice-rice-fallow (RRF) and rice-rice-rape (RRR) rotations, and examined the effects of 1,2-benzenediol on nitrogen-use efficiency (NUE) and rice growth.


The metabolite composition of rice rhizospheres was analyzed using the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A range of 0.2, 2.0 and 200 μmol L−1 concentrations of external 1,2-benzenediol were applied to examine their effects on rice growth, nitrate reductase (NR) and glutamine synthetase (GS) activities, and physiological nitrogen-use efficiency (PNUE).


The metabolite composition of rhizospheres differed significantly between RRR and RRF. Soil total N and 1,2-benzenediol concentrations during the early rice season were significantly lower under RRR than RRF. Rice growth and NUE significantly enhanced at 0.20 μmol 1,2-benzenediol L−1, but inhibited at 2.0 μmol L−1 or higher. Changes in root morphology and uptake associated with 1,2-benzenediol possibly had contributed to a higher NUE of the early season rice under RRR. The NR and GS activities in rice roots were significantly higher with 0.2 μmol L−1 1,2-benzenediol than without 1,2-benzenediol treatment.


Crop rotation significantly affected rice rhizosphere metabolites. An optimal soil 1,2-benzenediol concentration under long-term RRR rotation may be associated with an enhanced NUE and root N uptake and assimilation, resulting in an increased rice growth and yield.


Allelochemical metabolite Brassica napus Glutamine synthetase Nitrate reductase Oryza sativa 



This study was supported in part by the National Key R&D Program of China (2017YFD0200100; 2017YFD0200104); National Natural Science Foundation of China (31101596, 31372130); Hunan Provincial Recruitment Program of Foreign Experts; the National Oilseed Rape Production Technology System of China; and the 2011 Plan of the Chinese Ministry of Education; and the Double First Class Construction Project of Hunan Agricultural University (kxk201801005).

Supplementary material

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Southern Regional Collaborative Innovation Center for Grain and Oil Crops in China, College of Resources and Environmental SciencesHunan Agricultural UniversityChangshaChina
  2. 2.National Center of Oilseed Crops ImprovementChangshaChina
  3. 3.Center for Environmental Diagnostics and BioremediationUniversity of West FloridaPensacolaUSA
  4. 4.College of Natural Resources and EnvironmentSouthwest UniversityChongqingChina
  5. 5.School of Biological SciencesUniversity of Western AustraliaCrawleyAustralia

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