Seasonal patterns of water uptake in Populus tremuloides and Picea glauca on a boreal reclamation site is species specific and modulated by capping soil depth and slope position
- 116 Downloads
Soil water availability is important for tree growth and varies with topographic position and soil depth. We aim to understand how two co-occurring tree species with distinct rooting and physiological characteristics respond to those two variables during two climatically distinct growing seasons.
Growing season (May to September) sap and transpiration fluxes were monitored using heat ratio method sap flow sensors on Populus tremuloides and Picea glauca in 2014 and 2015 growing along a hillslope with two different soil cover depths providing different rooting spaces.
Across the two growing seasons, a shallow rooting space was the main factor limiting aspen’s leaf area and cumulative sap flux, whereas responses of white spruce were more limited by topographical position. Generally, sap and transpiration fluxes decreased with the season; however, a large precipitation event during the 2015 summer triggered a significant recovery in sap and transpiration fluxes in white spruce, while in aspen this response was more muted.
The two species distinct rooting and physiological characteristics produced contrasting water uptake and water use dynamics in response to rooting space, soil water availability and climate, inviting a more detailed exploration of sap flux and its interactions with climatic and edaphic variables.
KeywordsSap flow Rooting depth Precipitation events Soil water availability Mine reclamation
We thank Marty Yarmuch and Craig Farnden for their logistical support and all those who provided field and lab support for this project over the years (Pak Chow, Frances Leishman, Simon Bockstette, Robert Hetmanski, Caren Jones, Jeff Kelly, Angeline Letourneau, Mika Little-Devito, Michelle McCutcheon, Shauna Stack) and data processing support (Newton Tran, ICT International Pty Ltd.). We thank Sean Carey and three anonymous reviewers for their comments on the manuscript.
We would like to acknowledge the funding support provided by the National Science and Engineering Research Council (NSERC), the Canadian Oil Sands Innovation Alliance (COSIA, Syncrude Canada Ltd., Canadian Natural Resources Ltd., Suncor Energy, Imperial Oil Ltd.).
- Alberta Parks (2015) Natural Regions and Subregions of Alberta. A Framework for Alberta’s Parks. Alberta Tourism, Parks and Recreation., Edmonton, AlbertaGoogle Scholar
- Barbour L, Chanasyk D, Hendry MJ, Leskiw L, Macyk T, Mendoza C, Naeth A, Nichol C, O’Kane M, Purdy B, Qualizza C, Quideau S, Welham C (2007) Soil capping research in the Athabasca Oil Sands region. Technology Synthesis, vol. 1. Syncrude Canada Ltd. - Internal Publication.Google Scholar
- Blake TJ, Sperry JS, Tschaplinski TJ, Wang SS (1996) Water relations. In: Stettler RF, Bradshaw HDJ, Heilman PE, Hinckley TM (eds) Biology of Populus and its implications for management and conservation. NRC Research Press, National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, ON, pp 401–422Google Scholar
- Blanken PD (1997) Evaporation within and above a boreal aspen forest. PhD thesis. University of British ColumbiaGoogle Scholar
- Brédoire F, Nikitich P, Barsukov PA, Derrien D, Litvinov A, Rieckh H, Rusalimova O, Zeller B, Bakker MR (2016) Distributions of fine root length and mass with soil depth in natural ecosystems of southwestern Siberia. Plant Soil 400:315–335. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11104-015-2717-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- DeByle NV, Winokur RP (1985) Aspen: ecology and management in the western United States, USDA Forest Service General Technical Report RM-119. Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Fort Collins, Colo. 283 p. https://doi.org/10.2737/RM-GTR-119
- Devito K, Mendoza C, Qualizza C (2012) Conceptualizing water movement in the Boreal Plains. Implications for watershed reconstruction. Synthesis report prepared for the Canadian Oil Sands Network for Research and Development, Environmental and Reclamation Research Group, p 164 Google Scholar
- Environment Canada (2013) Canadian Climate Normals 1981–2010 Station Data - Climate - Environment and Climate Change Canada - Environment and Climate Change Canada [WWW Document]. URL http://climate.weather.gc.ca/climate_normals/results_1981_2010_e.html?stnID=2519&dispBack=0&month1=1&month2=9. Accessed 7.10.18
- Fung MYP, Macyk TM (2000) Reclamation of oil sands mining areas. In: Barnhisel RI, Darmody RG, Daniels WL (eds) Reclamation of drastically disturbed lands, ASA, CSSA and SSSA. American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, Soil Science Society of America, Madison, pp 755–774. https://doi.org/10.2134/agronmonogr41.c30 Google Scholar
- Government of Alberta (2017) Environmental protection and enhancement act. Revised Statutes of Alberta 2000 Chapter E-12. http://www.qp.alberta.ca/documents/acts/e12.pdf. Accessed 20 Apr 2018
- Grossnickle SC (2000) Ecophysiology of northern spruce species : the performance of planted seedlings. NRC Research Press, Ottawa, 409Google Scholar
- Huang J, Tardif JC, Bergeron Y, Denneler B, Berninger F, Girardin MP (2010) Radial growth response of four dominant boreal tree species to climate along a latitudinal gradient in the eastern Canadian boreal forest. Glob Chang Biol 16:711–731. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2486.2009.01990.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- IPCC (2013) In: Stocker TF, Qin D, Plattner G-K, Tignor M, Allen SK, Boschung J, Nauels A, Xia Y, Bex V, Midgley PM (eds) Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group 1 to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New YorkGoogle Scholar
- Kalliokoski T, Nygren P, Sievänen R (2008) Coarse root architecture of three boreal tree species growing in mixed stands. Silva Fenn 42. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.252
- Lanoue AVL (2003) Phosphorus content and accumulation of carbon and nitrogen in boreal forest soils. M.Sc. Thesis. University of Alberta, Edmonton, ABGoogle Scholar
- Lawrence DJ, Luckai N, Meyer WL, Shahi C, Fazekas AJ, Kesanakurti P, Newmaster S (2012) Distribution of white spruce lateral fine roots as affected by the presence of trembling aspen: root mapping using simple sequence repeat DNA profiling. Can J For Res 42:1566–1576. https://doi.org/10.1139/x2012-082 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Lemeur R, Fernández JE, Steppe K (2008) Symbols, SI units and physical quantities within the scope of sap flow studies. In: Fernández E, Diaz-Espejo A (eds) Acta Horticulturae. International Society for Horticultural Science (ISHS), Leuven, pp 21–32Google Scholar
- Lenth RV (2018) emmeans: Estimated Marginal Means, aka Least-Squares Means. R package version 1.2.3. https://CRAN.R-project.org/package=emmeans. Accessed 20 July 2018
- Lilles EB, Purdy BG, Macdonald SE, Chang SX (2012) Growth of aspen and white spruce on naturally saline sites in northern Alberta: implications for development of boreal forest vegetation on reclaimed saline soils. Can J Soil Sci 92:213–227. https://doi.org/10.4141/cjss2010-032 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Link P, Simonin K, Maness H, Oshun J, Dawson T, Fung I (2014) Species differences in the seasonality of evergreen tree transpiration in a Mediterranean climate: analysis of multiyear, half-hourly sap flow observations. Water Resour Res 50:1869–1894. https://doi.org/10.1002/2013WR014023 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Mundell TL, Landhäusser SM, Lieffers VJ (2007) Effects of Corylus cornuta stem density on root suckering and rooting depth of Populus tremuloides this article is one of a selection of papers published in the special issue on poplar research in Canada. Can J Bot 85:1041–1045. https://doi.org/10.1139/B07-089 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Pfautsch S, Keitel C, Turnbull TL, Braimbridge MJ, Wright TE, Simpson RR, O’Brien JA, Adams MA (2011) Diurnal patterns of water use in Eucalyptus victrix indicate pronounced desiccation-rehydration cycles despite unlimited water supply. Tree Physiol 31:1041–1051. https://doi.org/10.1093/treephys/tpr082 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Pinheiro J, Bates D, DebRoy S, Sarkar D, R Core Team (2018) _nlme: Linear and nonlinear mixed effects models_. R package version 3.1–137. https://CRAN.R-project.org/package=nlme. Accessed 20 Apr 2018
- R Development Core Team (2018) R: a language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria. https://www.R-project.org/. Accessed 20 Apr 2018
- Schaffer B, Whiley AW, Searle C (1999) Atmospheric CO2 enrichment, root restriction, photosynthesis, and dry-matter partitioning in subtropical and tropical fruit crops. Hortic Sci 34:1033–1037Google Scholar
- Schenk HJ, Jackson RB (2002) The global biogeography of roots. Ecol Monogr 72:311–328. https://doi.org/10.1890/0012-9615(2002)072[0311:TGBOR]2.0.CO;2Google Scholar
- Schuster R, Oberhuber W, Gruber A, Wieser G (2016) Soil drought decreases water-use of pine and spruce but not of larch in a dry inner alpine valley. Aust J Forensic Sci:1–17Google Scholar
- Snedden JE (2013) The root distribution, architecture, transpiration and root sapflow dynamics of mature trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides) growing along a hillslope. M. Sc. Thesis. University of AlbertaGoogle Scholar
- Van Cleve K, Yarie J (1986) Interaction of temperature, moisture, and soil chemistry in controlling nutrient cycling and ecosystem development in the Taiga of Alaska. In: Van Cleve K, Chapin FS, Flanagan PW, Viereck LA, Dyrness CT (eds) Forest Ecosystems in the Alaskan Taiga. Ecological Studies (Analysis and Synthesis), vol. 57. Springer, New York, pp 160–189. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4612-4902-3_12