Advertisement

Plant and Soil

, Volume 437, Issue 1–2, pp 439–454 | Cite as

A discrete element model of seed-soil dynamics in soybean emergence

  • Hao Gong
  • Zhiwei Zeng
  • Long QiEmail author
Regular Article
  • 145 Downloads

Abstract

Aims

Understanding seed-soil dynamics is important for improving plant emergence and growth. The objectives of this study were to develop a Seed-Soil model to simulate the dynamic process of seed expansion in soil, and a Cotyledon-Soil model to simulate the dynamic process of cotyledon movement in soil.

Methods

To obtain model inputs, a soybean emergence experiment was conducted to measure the expansion rates of seed and the translational and rotational velocities of cotyledon movement. After being calibrated and validated, the models were used to simulate the contact and force characteristics of seed-soil and cotyledon-soil as well as the resultant kinetic energy of soil particles in the seedbed.

Results

Results from the Seed-Soil model showed that during the germination phase (0–48 h), the number of contacts between the seed and soil increased from the initial 40 counts to about 80. Results from the Cotyledon-Soil model demonstrated that the vertical movement and rotation of cotyledon during the emergence phase (48–120 h) caused a linear increase in the kinetic energy of the soil particles, and a decrease in the number of contacts between the cotyledon and soil. The maximum soil impedance to the cotyledon was 0.123 N, which occurred at 54 h after planting.

Conclusions

The two models developed were capable of simulating the dynamic processes of seed expansion and cotyledon movement in soybean emergence.

Keywords

DEM Seed Expansion Cotyledon Emergence Soil Impedance 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This research was supported in part by the Grant of 2017 Guangdong Recruitment Program of Foreign Experts, the Earmarked Fund for Modern Agro-industry Technology Research System, (No. CARS-01-43), Guangdong Province, China.

References

  1. Anzooman M, Christopher J, Mumford M, Dang YP, Menzies NW, Kopittke PM (2018) Selection for rapid germination and emergence may improve wheat seedling establishment in the presence of soil surface crusts. Plant Soil 426:227–239CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Arndt W (1965a) The impedance of soil seals and the forces of emerging seedlings. Aust J Soil Res 3:55–68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Arndt W (1965b) The nature of the mechanical impedance to seedlings by soil surface seals. Aust J Soil Res 3:45–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. ASABE Standards (2015) S526.4 soil and water terminology. ASABE, St. JosephGoogle Scholar
  5. Bewley JD, Black M (1994) Seeds. In Seeds, Springer, BostonGoogle Scholar
  6. Boac JM, Casada ME, Maghirang RG, Harner JP (2010) Material and interaction properties of selected grains and oilseeds for modelling discrete particles. Trans ASABE 53(4):1201–1216CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bouaziz A, Bruckler L (1989) Modeling of wheat imbibitions and germination as influenced by soil physical properties. Soil Sci Soc Am J 53:219–227CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Collins G, Stibbe E, Kroesbergen B (1984) Influence of soil moisture stress and soil bulk density on the imbibition of corn seeds in a sandy soil. Soil Tillage Res 4:361–370CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Collis-George N, Hector JB (1966) Germination of seeds as influenced by matric potential and by area of contact between seed and soil water. Aust J Soil Res 4(2):145–164CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Doan V, Chen Y, Irvine B (2005) Effect of residue type on the performance of no-till seeder openers. Can Biosyst Eng 47:2.29–2.35Google Scholar
  11. Drew LO, Buchele WF (1962) Emergence force of plants. Paper No. 62-641 presented at the winter meeting of ASAE, Chicago, IllinoisGoogle Scholar
  12. Dun GQ, Chen HT, Zha SH (2016) Parameter optimization and validation of soybean cell wheel seeding plate type-hole based on EDEM. Soybean Sci 35:830–839Google Scholar
  13. EDEM (2018) EDEM 2.6 theory reference guide. DEM Solutions Ltd, EdinburghGoogle Scholar
  14. Edwards CJ, Hartwig EE (1971) Effect of seed size upon rate of germination in soybeans. Agron J 63(3):429–450CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Garner TH, Bowen HD (1966) Plant mechanics in seedling emergence. Trans ASAE 9(5):650–653CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Gremigni P, Hamblin J, Harris D, Cowling WA (2003) The interaction of phosphorus and potassium with seed alkaloid concentrations, yield and mineral content in narrow-leafed lupin (Lupinus angustifolius L.). Plant Soil 253:413–427CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Hadas A, Russo D (1974) Water uptake by seeds as affected by water stress, capillary conductivity, and soil-seed water contact. II. Analysis of experimental data. Agron J 66:647–652CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Hastie D (2013) Experimental measurement of the coefficient of restitution of irregular shaped particles impacting on horizontal surfaces. Chem Eng Sci 101:828–836CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Hillel D (1972) Soil moisture and seed germiantion. In: Kozlowski TT (ed) Water deficits and plant growth, volume III, plant responses and control of water balance. Academic Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  20. Hyatt J, Wendroth O, Egli DB, TeKrony DM (2007) Soil compaction and soybean seedling emergence. Crop Sci 47(6):2495–2503CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Junior AC, de Oliveira VJ, Da Silva DLS, de Lima FM, de Lima Dantas NB (2016) Water uptake mechanism and germination of Erythrina velutina seeds treated with atmospheric plasma.  https://doi.org/10.1038/srep33722
  22. Li B, Chen Y, Chen J (2016) Modeling of soil-claw interaction using the discrete element method (DEM). Soil Tillage Res 158(2016):177–185CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Manitoba Agriculture (2018) Soybean - production and management. Available via DIALOG. https://www.gov.mb.ca/agriculture/crops/crop-management/soybeans.html. Accessed 30 Nov 2018
  24. Mao Z, Yang M, Bourrier F (2014) Evaluation of root reinforcement models using numerical modelling approaches. Plant Soil 381:249–270CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Morton CT, Buchele WF (1960) Emergence energy of plant seedlings. Agric Eng 41:453–455Google Scholar
  26. Mugnisjah WQ, Shimano I, Matsumoto S (1987) Studies on the vigour of soybean seeds II. Varietal differences in seed coat quality and swelling components of seed during moisture imbibition. J Fac Agrc Kyushu Univ 31(3):227–234Google Scholar
  27. Nelson EB (2018) The seed microbiome: origins, interactions, and impacts. Plant Soil 422:7–34CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Pietrzak LN, Frégeau-Reid J, Chatson B, Blackwell B (2002) Observations on water distribution in soybean seed during hydration processes using nuclear magnetic resonance imaging. Can J Plant Sci 82:513–519CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Rathore TR, Ghildyal BP, Sachan RS (1981) Germination and emergence of soybean under crusted soil conditions. Plant Soil 62:7–105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Richards LA (1953) Modulus of rupture as an index of crusting of soil. Proc Soil Sci Soc Am 17:321–323CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Rogers RB, Dubetz S (1980) Effect of soil-seed contact on seed imbibition. Can Agric Eng 22(1):89–92Google Scholar
  32. Sivaprasad B, Sundara Sarma KS (1987) Seedling emergence of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.), pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan L.) and pearl millet (Pennisetum typhoides L.) effect of differential soil crusting, as induced by raindrop size, and depth of sowing. Plant Soil 104:263–268CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Sui J (2016) Research on experiment and simulation analysis of soybean collision with soil. Jilin University 09:80Google Scholar
  34. Tessier S, Saxton KE, Papendick RI, Hyde GM (1991) Zero-tillage furrow opener effects on seed environment and wheat emergence. Soil Tillage Res 21(3–4):347–360CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Tyagi SK, Tripathi RP (1983) Effect of temperature on soybean germination. Plant Soil 74:273–280CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Vaughan CE, Delouche JC (1960) Relation of rate of seed swelling to viability in small seeded legumes. Proc Assoc Official Seed Analysts 50(1):109–111Google Scholar
  37. Whalley WR, Clark LJ, Cope RE (2004) The impact of mechanical impedance on the emergence of carrot and onion seedlings. Plant Soil 265:315–323CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Wood JA, Harden S (2006) A method to estimate the hydration and swelling properties of chickpeas (Cicer arietinum L.). J. Food Sci 71(4):190–195CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Zhang R, Han DL, Ji QL (2016) Numerical simulation of the interaction between the grousers of tracked vehicle and the soil using discrete element method. Springer Proc Physics 188:1307–1314CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Zhou H, Chen Y, Sadek M (2014) Modelling of soil-seed contact using the discrete element method (DEM). Biosyst Eng 121:56–66CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Zhou Y, Coventry DR, Denton MD (2017) Soil surface pressure reduces post-emergent shoot growth in wheat. Plant Soil 413:127–144CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.College of EngineeringSouth China Agricultural UniversityGuangzhouPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.Department of Biosystems EngineeringUniversity of ManitobaWinnipegCanada

Personalised recommendations