Plant and Soil

, Volume 437, Issue 1–2, pp 291–299 | Cite as

Uptake of rare earth elements by citrus plants from phosphate fertilizers

  • Christian Turra
  • Elisabete A. De Nadai Fernandes
  • Márcio Arruda BacchiEmail author
  • Gabriel Adrián Sarriés
  • Andrés Enrique Lai Reyes
Regular Article


Background and Aims

Rare earth elements (REE) are a group of the periodic table formed by 17 chemical elements (lanthanoids plus yttrium and scandium). They have been used in different field applications. In agriculture, they can be found in some phosphate fertilizers at levels one or two orders of magnitude higher than those found in normal agricultural soils. Citrus plants are known to present high levels of REE when compared to most other species, however, there is little information about bioavailability of REE in phosphate fertilizers for citrus plants. This work focuses on the study of REE behavior by the application of increasing doses of single superphosphate fertilizer in Rangpur lime (Citrus limonia Osbeck) plants in a greenhouse study.


The technique used was instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA).


The results showed that the fertilizer has caused significant increases in the content of REE in the citrus plant tissues, with higher concentrations in leaves than in branches. The highest substrate-leaf transfer factor was observed for La (0.0047), though the concentrations in the plants followed the same order found in the substrate, i.e. Ce > La > Sm > Eu > Sc.


There was an increase of rare earth elements concentrations in Rangpur lime plants by superphosphate fertilizer application.


Rare earth elements Citrus plants Lanthanoids Phosphate fertilizers Bioavailability 



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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Christian Turra
    • 1
  • Elisabete A. De Nadai Fernandes
    • 1
  • Márcio Arruda Bacchi
    • 1
    Email author
  • Gabriel Adrián Sarriés
    • 2
  • Andrés Enrique Lai Reyes
    • 2
  1. 1.Centro de Energia Nuclear na AgriculturaUniversidade de São Paulo (CENA/USP)PiracicabaBrazil
  2. 2.Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de QueirozUniversidade de São Paulo (ESALQ/USP)PiracicabaBrazil

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