Plant and Soil

, Volume 437, Issue 1–2, pp 241–254 | Cite as

Harvesting forage of the perennial grain crop kernza (Thinopyrum intermedium) increases root biomass and soil nitrogen cycling

  • Jennie Y. PuglieseEmail author
  • Steve W. Culman
  • Christine D. Sprunger
Regular Article


Background and aims

Emerging perennial grain crops yield less grain than annual crops, but the economic viability of these perennial systems could be improved if both forage and grain are harvested. However, the belowground consequences of forage removal in perennial grain systems are unknown. This study aimed to determine the effect of the additional harvest of forage biomass on overall plant biomass allocation and labile soil C and N dynamics within a perennial grain dual-use system.


Plant biomass and associated soil samples of a perennial grain [Kernza (Thinopyrum intermedium)] were taken monthly over the first three growing seasons under three harvest regiments: No Cut (0x), Summer Cut (1x), and Summer and Fall Cut (2x).


The harvesting of forage biomass significantly increased both above- and belowground biomass. The once and twice forage-harvested treatments averaged 39% and 73% greater root biomass in 2016 and 39% and 49% greater root biomass in 2017 relative to the treatment not harvested for forage. Soil indicators of carbon and nitrogen storage were not affected by forage harvest but mineralizable carbon, an indicator of nutrient cycling, was greater under the forage harvested treatments.


The harvest of forage and grain promoted nutrient availability and overall productivity (forage, root and grain biomass) relative to harvesting for grain only. Our findings suggest dual-use management of Kernza can provide a productive and profitable pathway for perennial grain adoption.


Soil health Perennial grain Root biomass Dual-use Forage harvest Permanganate oxidizable carbon Mineralizable carbon Soil protein 



We would like to thank Stuti Sharma, Meredith Mann, Phoo Pye Zone, and Anthony Fulford for their assistance in the field and laboratory. We thank Lee DeHaan and the Land Institute for supplying Kernza seed and threshing grain for us. Support for this work was provided by the School of Environment and Natural Resources at The Ohio State University.

Supplementary material

11104_2019_3974_MOESM1_ESM.docx (16 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 15 kb)
11104_2019_3974_MOESM2_ESM.docx (17 kb)
ESM 2 (DOCX 17 kb)


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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019
corrected publication 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Environment and Natural Resources, Ohio Agricultural Research and Development CenterOhio State UniversityWoosterUSA

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