Physiological and comparative proteomic analyses of saline-alkali NaHCO3-responses in leaves of halophyte Puccinellia tenuiflora
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Soil alkalization imposes severe ion toxicity, osmotic stress, and high pH stress to plants, inhibiting their growth and productivity. NaHCO3 is a main component of alkaline soil. However, knowledge of the NaHCO3-responsive proteomic pattern of alkaligrass is still lacking. Alkaligrass (Puccinellia tenuiflora) is a monocotyledonous halophyte pasture widely distributed in the Songnen Plain in Northeastern China. This study aims to investigate the NaHCO3-responsive molecular mechanisms in the alkaligrass plants.
An integrative approach including photosynthetic and redox physiology, and comparative proteomics was used.
NaHCO3 decreased photosynthesis, but increased nonphotochemical quenching, increased membrane electrolyte leakage of alkaligrass, and increased proline and glycine betaine concentrations in leaves. In addition, the NaHCO3 stress increased Na+ concentration and decreased K+/Na+ ratio in leaves, while Ca2+ and Mg2+ concentrations were maintained, contributing to signaling and homeostasis of ion and enzyme activity. Furthermore, O2− generation rate and H2O2 concentration were increased, and the activities of ten antioxidant enzymes and antioxidant concentrations were changed in response to the NaHCO3 stress. Proteomics revealed 90 NaHCO3-responsive proteins, 54% of which were localized in chloroplasts. They were mainly involved in signaling, photosynthesis, stress and defense, carbohydrate and energy metabolism, as well as protein synthesis, processing and turnover. Some protein abundances did not correlate well with their activities, implying that the enzyme activities were affected by NaHCO3-induced post-translational modifications.
To cope with the NaHCO3 stress, alkaligrass deployed multiple strategies, including triggering phospholipase D (PLD)-mediated Ca2+ signaling pathways, enhancing diverse reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging pathways, and regulating chloroplast protein synthesis and processing.
KeywordsSoil alkalization Halophyte Puccinellia tenuiflora NaHCO3-responsive mechanisms Proteomics
The project was supported by grants from the Foundation of Shanghai Science and Technology Committee, China (No. 17391900600), Capacity Construction Project of Local Universities, Shanghai, China (No. 14390502700) to Shaojun Dai, the Found of Shanghai Engineering Research Center of Plant Germplasm Resources (No.17DZ2252700), and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (31801848) to Zepeng Yin.
Shaojun Dai and Zhi Qin conceived and designed the experiments; Zepeng Yin, Heng Zhang, Qi Zhao, Ning Zhu, Siyi Guo, Yuchen Miao, Tai Wang, and Jianlan Yu participated in experiments and data analyses; Zepeng Yin wrote the manuscript with inputs and guidance from Shaojun Dai, Sixue Chen, Mi-Jeong Yoo and Zhi Qin. All authors have read and approved the final manuscript.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflicts of interest
The authors declare no conflict of interest.
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