Effect of contaminated soil on multitrophic interactions in a terrestrial system
- 126 Downloads
Background and aims
The effect of contaminated soil on multitrophic interactions in a terrestrial system was studied in a mesocosm experiment with European beech, larvae of summer chafer, and entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN).
Beech seedlings were grown in non-contaminated forest and garden soil contaminated with potential toxic elements Cd, Pb and Zn, and in the absence/presence of summer chafer larvae. Root morphology and ectomycorrhizal communities were analysed. Volatile organic compounds (VOC) emitted from beech roots were investigated by GC-MS. Humulene, β-caryophyllene, borneol and camphor were selected for chemotaxis assay with EPN Steinernema feltiae, S. carpocapsae and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora.
Increased root tip density was observed as a response to soil contamination and root herbivory. Soil contamination decreased ectomycorrhizal species richness. Analyses of VOC yielded 14 different compounds. Results showed that the least mobile nematode species towards the VOC tested was S. feltiae. β-caryophyllene was an attractant for S. carpocapsae and humulene a weak attractant for H. bacteriophora.
Beech roots emitted VOC that affected movement of EPN. β-caryophyllene was detected in beech roots regardless of treatment, indicating that VOC that affect movement of EPN are emitted even in the absence of direct root herbivore attack.
KeywordsContaminated soil Beech seedlings Summer chafer Ectomycorrhizal communities Root volatile organic compounds Entomopathogenic nematodes
This work was conducted within Horticulture No. P4-0013-0481, a programme funded by the Slovenian Research Agency. Part of this research was funded within Professional Tasks from the Field of Plant Protection, a programme funded by the Phytosanitary Administration of the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry, and Food of the Republic of Slovenia. The authors acknowledge the financial support from the Slovenian Research Agency (public tender “Promoting employment of young PhDs” in 2015 and research core funding No. P4-0107 Forest biology, ecology and technology), Dr. Tine Grebenc for advice on phylogenetic analysis of T. menseri and Koppert for providing the commercial strains of entomopathogenic nematodes.
- Adriano DC (2001) Trace elements in terrestrial environments. In: Biogeochemistry, bioavailability and risks of metals, second ed. Springer-Verlag, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- Agerer R, Rambold G (2004–2017) DEEMY – an information system for characterization and determination of ectomycorrhizae. München, GermanyGoogle Scholar
- ARSO (2018) The basic data source. Archives of the National Meteorology Office. http://meteo.arso.gov.si/met/sl/app/webmet/#webmet==8Sdwx2bhR2cv0WZ0V2bvEGcw9ydlJWblR3LwVnaz9SYtVmYh9iclFGbt9SaulGdugXbsx3cs9mdl5WahxXYyNGapZXZ8tHZv1WYp5mOnMHbvZXZulWYnwCchJXYtVGdlJnOn0UQQdSf. Accessed Feb 2018
- Atlas RM, Bartha R (1981) Microbial ecology: fundamentals and applications. Addison-Wesley Pub. Co.Google Scholar
- Chapman HD (1965) Cation-exchange capacity 1. Methods of soil analysis. Part 2. Chemical and Microbiological Properties, p 891-901Google Scholar
- Erb M, Huber M, Robert CAM et al (2013) The role pf plant primary and secondary metabolites in root-herbivore behavior, nutrition and physiology. In: Johnson SN, Hiltpold I, Turlings TJC (eds) Advances in insect physiology. Academic, Oxford, pp 53–95Google Scholar
- Ernst WH (1998) The origin and ecology of contaminated, stabilized and non-pristine soils. In: Vangronsveld J, Cunningham SC (eds) Metal contaminated soils, in situ inactivation and phytorestoration. Springer, Berlin, p 17Google Scholar
- ISO 10390:2005 (2005) Soil quality - determination of pH. International Organization for Standardization, GeneveGoogle Scholar
- ISO 10694:1995 (1995) Soil quality - determination of organic and total carbon after dry combustion (elementary analysis). International Organization for Standardization, GeneveGoogle Scholar
- ISO 11466:1995 (1995) Soil quality - extraction of trace elements soluble in aqua regia. International Organization for Standardization, GeneveGoogle Scholar
- ISO 11464:2006 (2006) Soil quality -- pretreatment of samples for physico-chemical analysis. International Organization for Standardization, GeneveGoogle Scholar
- Jones A, Panagos P, Barcelo S et al (2012) The state of soil in Europe-A contribution of the JRC to the European Environment Agency’s environment state and outlook report–SOER 2010Google Scholar
- Laznik Ž, Košir IJ, Rozman L et al (2011) Preliminary results of variability in mechanical-induced volatile root-emissions of different maize cultivars. Maydica 56:343–350Google Scholar
- Laznik Ž, Trdan S (2015) Failure of entomopathogens to control white grubs (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae). Acta Agric Scand Sect B Soil Plant Sci 65:95–108Google Scholar
- Marescotti P, Roccotiello E, Zotti M et al (2013) Influence of soil mineralogy and chemistry on fungi and plants in a waste-rock dump from the Libiola mine (eastern Liguria, Italy). Per Mineral 82:141–162Google Scholar
- McBride MB (1989) Reactions controlling heavy metal solubility in soils. In: Advances in soil science. Springer, New York, p 1-56Google Scholar
- ÖNORM L 1087:1993 (1993) Bestimmung von pflanzenverfügbarem Phosphat und Kalium nach der Calcium-Acetat-Lactat (CAL)-Methode. Österreichisches Normungsinstitut, Wien (A)Google Scholar
- ÖNORM L 1086-1 (2001) Chemische Bodenuntersuchungen: Bestimmung der austauschbaren Kationen und der effektiven Kationen-Austauschkapazität (KAKeff) durch Extraktion mit Bariumchlorid-Lösung, Österreichisches Normungsinstitut, Wien (A)Google Scholar
- Rasmann S, Hiltpold I, Ali J (2012) The role of root-produced volatile secondary metabolites in mediating soil interactions. In: Montanaro G, Cichio B (eds) Advances in selected plant physiology aspects. InTech, Rijeka, pp 269–290Google Scholar
- Schippers A, Sand W (1999) Bacterial leaching of metal sulfides proceeds by two indirect mechanisms via thiosulfate or via Polysulfides and sulfur. Appl Environ Microbiol 65:319–321Google Scholar
- Smith SE, Read DJ (2008) Mycorrhizal Symbiosis, 3rd edn. Academic, San DiegoGoogle Scholar