Wheat methionine sulfoxide reductase A4.1 interacts with heme oxygenase 1 to enhance seedling tolerance to salinity or drought stress
Here, a functional characterization of a wheat MSR has been presented: this protein makes a contribution to the plant’s tolerance of abiotic stress, acting through its catalytic capacity and its modulation of ROS and ABA pathways.
The molecular mechanism and function of certain members of the methionine sulfoxide reductase (MSR) gene family have been defined, however, these analyses have not included the wheat equivalents. The wheat MSR gene TaMSRA4.1 is inducible by salinity and drought stress and in this study, we demonstrate that its activity is restricted to the Met-S-SO enantiomer, and its subcellular localization is in the chloroplast. Furthermore, constitutive expression of TaMSRA4.1 enhanced the salinity and drought tolerance of wheat and Arabidopsis thaliana. In these plants constitutively expressing TaMSRA4.1, the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was found to be influenced through the modulation of genes encoding proteins involved in ROS signaling, generation and scavenging, while the level of endogenous abscisic acid (ABA), and the sensitivity of stomatal guard cells to exogenous ABA, was increased. A yeast two-hybrid screen, bimolecular fluorescence complementation and co-immunoprecipitation assays demonstrated that heme oxygenase 1 (HO1) interacted with TaMSRA4.1, and that this interaction depended on a TaHO1 C-terminal domain. In plants subjected to salinity or drought stress, TaMSRA4.1 reversed the oxidation of TaHO1, activating ROS and ABA signaling pathways, but not in the absence of HO1. The aforementioned properties advocate TaMSRA4.1 as a candidate for plant genetic enhancement.
KeywordsTriticum aestivum Methionine sulfoxide reductase A4.1 Heme oxygenase 1 Salinity stress Drought stress Abscisic acid Reactive oxygen species
Methionine sulfoxide reductase
Heme oxygenase 1
Zinc protoporphyrin IX
Bimolecular fluorescence complementation
Reactive oxygen species
We thank Mingyi Bai (Shandong University, Jinan, China) for providing the MPH and YFPC/YFPN vectors. This research was supported by the Natural Science Foundation of China (31471486, 31271706, 31570372) and an Agricultural Industrialization Development Project of high-quality seed from Shandong Province (2013).
FC designed the research. FC and PD wrote the manuscript. PD, LF, GW, SH, XL, YG, JZ, LX, and JT performed the experiments. FC, PD, and GX contributed to data analysis. All authors read and approved the manuscript.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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