MaMPK2 enhances MabZIP93-mediated transcriptional activation of cell wall modifying genes during banana fruit ripening
Transcriptional regulation is an essential molecular machinery in controlling gene expression in diverse plant developmental processes including fruit ripening. This involves the interaction of transcription factors (TFs) and promoters of target genes. In banana, although a number of fruit ripening-associated TFs have been characterized, their number is relatively small. Here we identified a nuclear-localized basic leucine zipper (bZIP) TF, MabZIP93, associated with banana ripening. MabZIP93 activated cell wall modifying genes MaPL2, MaPE1, MaXTH23 and MaXGT1 by directly binding to their promoters. Transient over-expression of MabZIP93 in banana fruit resulted in the increased expression of MaPL2, MaPE1, MaXTH23 and MaXGT1. Moreover, a mitogen-activated protein kinase MaMPK2 and MabZIP93 were found to interact with MabZIP93. The interaction of MabZIP93 with MaMPK2 enhanced MabZIP93 activation of cell wall modifying genes, which was likely due to the phosphorylation of MabZIP93 mediated by MaMPK2. Overall, this study shows that MaMPK2 interacts with and phosphorylates MabZIP93 to promote MabZIP93-mediated transcriptional activation of cell wall modifying genes, thereby expanding our understanding of gene networks associated with banana fruit ripening.
MaMPK2 interacts with and phosphorylates MabZIP93, which enhances MabZIP93 activation of cell wall modifying genes including MaPL2, MaPE1, MaXTH23 and MaXGT1 during banana ripening.
KeywordsBanana fruit bZIP MAPK Transcriptional regulation Protein phosphorylation
Bimolecular fluorescence complementation
Basic leucine zipper
Electrophroretic mobility shift assay
Ethylene response factor
Mitogen-activated protein kinase
Polymerase chain reaction
Sodium dodecyl sulfate-poly acrylamide gel electrophoresis
The authors would like to thank Professor George P. Lomonossoff (Department of Biological Chemistry, John Innes Centre, Norwich Research Park) for the generous gifts of pEAQ vectors, and Professor Prakash Lakshmanan (Sugarcane Research Institute, Guangxi Academy of Agricultural Sciences, China) for English language editing. This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 31772021 and 31401922), Guangdong Special Support Program (Grant No. 2017TQ04N512) and China Agriculture Research System (Grant No. CARS-31-11).
JK and XS conceived and designed the experiments; CW performed most of the experiments; WS, SL, LZ and YG performed some of the experiments; JK and XS wrote the manuscript; QL, JC and WL gave advices and revised the manuscript. All authors read and approved the manuscript.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
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