Phytochemistry Reviews

, Volume 18, Issue 3, pp 601–622 | Cite as

The landscape of natural product diversity and their pharmacological relevance from a focus on the Dictionary of Natural Products®

  • François ChassagneEmail author
  • Guillaume Cabanac
  • Gilles Hubert
  • Bruno David
  • Guillaume Marti


Nature is considered a prolific source of diverse biologically active chemotypes. While most reviews have focused on the characteristics of the chemical backbones of natural products (NPs), few have tried to provide an overview of their origins (the living organisms in which they are produced), chemical classes, and biological activities. This review discusses the current knowledge on NP diversity by focusing on the Dictionary of Natural Products® (DNP). We datamined the 300,000 NPs covered by the DNP to reveal relevant, albeit dormant, knowledge about NP diversity. This holistic picture of NPs allows us to discuss the most abundant biological sources of NPs investigated in relation to their chemical features and biological activities. In a nutshell, a large part of NPs originated from plants (67%), especially from the Compositae and Leguminosae families. Among all kingdoms, NPs isolated from Streptomyces spp. were largely represented, while terpenoids and alkaloids were the two most represented chemical classes. Out of all NPs documented, only 3882 were reported to be bioactive (1163 from plants and 1006 from bacteria), with antibacterial, antibiotics, and antineoplastic agents being the most frequent therapeutic classes. In this paper, we also address the advantages and limitations of NP research from a pharmaceutical industry perspective. This work will provide useful insights and guidance to researchers involved in drug discovery from NPs.


Biological activity Drug discovery Genetic resources Pharmaceutical industry Plants 



Angiotensin converting enzyme


Chemical abstracts services


Dictionary of Natural Products®


High throughput screening


Natural product


Polysaccharide krestin





We would like to thank the French National Research Institute for Sustainable Development (IRD) documentation service for subscribing to the DNP. We would also like to thank Fiona Macdonald, Taylor and Francis group, for the clarifications she provided concerning the information given in the DNP.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

11101_2019_9606_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (171 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (PDF 170 kb)


  1. Adams JD, Wang R, Yang J, Lien EJ (2006) Preclinical and clinical examinations of Salvia miltiorrhiza and its tanshinones in ischemic conditions. Chin Med 1:3. Google Scholar
  2. Agrawal S, Adholeya A, Deshmukh SK (2016) The pharmacological potential of non-ribosomal peptides from marine sponge and tunicates. Front Pharmacol. Google Scholar
  3. Aly AH, Debbab A, Kjer J, Proksch P (2010) Fungal endophytes from higher plants: a prolific source of phytochemicals and other bioactive natural products. Fungal Divers 41:1–16. Google Scholar
  4. Antunes AMS, Guerrante RDS, Ávila JPC et al (2016) Case study of patents related to captopril, Squibb’s first blockbuster. Expert Opin Ther Pat 26:1449–1457. Google Scholar
  5. Appeltans W, Ahyong ST, Anderson G et al (2012) The magnitude of global marine species diversity. Curr Biol 22:2189–2202. Google Scholar
  6. Atanasov AG, Waltenberger B, Pferschy-Wenzig E-M et al (2015) Discovery and resupply of pharmacologically active plant-derived natural products: a review. Biotechnol Adv 33:1582–1614. Google Scholar
  7. Baker D, Chu M, Oza U, Rajgarhia V (2007) The value of natural products to future pharmaceutical discovery. Nat Prod Rep 24:1225–1244. Google Scholar
  8. Banerjee P, Erehman J, Gohlke B-O et al (2015) Super Natural II—a database of natural products. Nucleic Acids Res 43:D935–D939. Google Scholar
  9. Bérdy J (2005) Bioactive microbial metabolites. J Antibiot 58:1–26. Google Scholar
  10. Bérdy J (2012) Thoughts and facts about antibiotics: where we are now and where we are heading. J Antibiot 65:385–395. Google Scholar
  11. Bernardini S, Tiezzi A, Masci VL, Ovidi E (2017) Natural products for human health: an historical overview of the drug discovery approaches. Nat Prod Res. Google Scholar
  12. Bills G, Spatafora JW, Blackwell M (2005) Phylogeny of the fungal kingdom and fungal-like eukaryotes. In: An Z (ed) Handbook of industrial mycology. Marcel Dekker, New York, pp 27–47Google Scholar
  13. Blackwell M (2011) The Fungi: 1, 2, 3 … 5.1 million species? Am J Bot 98:426–438. Google Scholar
  14. Blunt JW, Copp BR, Hu WP et al (2008) Marine natural products. Nat Prod Rep 25:35–94. Google Scholar
  15. Blunt J, Munro M, Upjohn M (2012) The role of databases in marine natural products research. In: Fattorusso E, Gerwick WH, Taglialatela-Scafati O (eds) Handbook of marine natural products. Springer, Dordrecht, pp 389–421Google Scholar
  16. Blunt JW, Copp BR, Keyzers RA et al (2015) Marine natural products. Nat Prod Rep 32:116–211. Google Scholar
  17. Blunt JW, Copp BR, Keyzers RA et al (2017) Marine natural products. Nat Prod Rep 34:235–294. Google Scholar
  18. Brinker AM, Ma J, Lipsky PE, Raskin I (2007) Medicinal chemistry and pharmacology of genus Tripterygium (Celastraceae). Phytochemistry 68:732–766. Google Scholar
  19. Buczek O, Bulaj G, Olivera BM (2005) Conotoxins and the posttranslational modification of secreted gene products. Cell Mol Life Sci 62:3067–3079. Google Scholar
  20. Butler MS (2008) Natural products to drugs: natural product-derived compounds in clinical trials. Nat Prod Rep 25:475–516. Google Scholar
  21. Cantisani C, Gado FD, Ulrich M et al (2013) Actinic keratosis: review of the literature and new patents. Recent Pat Inflamm Allergy Drug Discov 7:168–175Google Scholar
  22. Capriotti E, Ozturk K, Carter H (2018) Integrating molecular networks with genetic variant interpretation for precision medicine. Wiley Interdiscip Rev Syst Biol Med. Google Scholar
  23. Chakravarti R, Sahai V (2004) Compactin—a review. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 64:618–624. Google Scholar
  24. Chang K-W, Tsai T-Y, Chen K-C et al (2011) iSMART: an integrated cloud computing web server for traditional Chinese medicine for online virtual screening, de novo evolution and drug design. J Biomol Struct Dyn 29:243–250. Google Scholar
  25. Chao J, Dai Y, Verpoorte R et al (2017) Major achievements of evidence-based traditional Chinese medicine in treating major diseases. Biochem Pharmacol 139:94–104. Google Scholar
  26. Chen BJ (2001) Triptolide, a novel immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory agent purified from a Chinese Herb Tripterygium wilfordii Hook F. Leuk Lymphoma 42:253–265. Google Scholar
  27. Chen W, Li Y, Guo Y (2012) Terpenoids of Sinularia soft corals: chemistry and bioactivity. Acta Pharm Sin B 2:227–237. Google Scholar
  28. Chen S-J, Lin H-H, Huang W-C et al (2017a) Ling-Zhi-8 protein (LZ-8) suppresses the production of pro-inflammatory mediators in murine microglial BV-2 cells. Food Agric Immunol 28:1393–1407. Google Scholar
  29. Chen Y, de Bruyn Kops C, Kirchmair J (2017b) Data resources for the computer-guided discovery of bioactive natural products. J Chem Inf Model 57:2099–2111. Google Scholar
  30. Chen S-R, Dai Y, Zhao J et al (2018) A mechanistic overview of triptolide and celastrol, natural products from Tripterygium wilfordii Hook F. Front Pharmacol. Google Scholar
  31. Cheng S, Sliva D (2015) Ganoderma lucidum for cancer treatment: we are close but still not there. Integr Cancer Ther 14:249–257. Google Scholar
  32. Clardy J, Walsh C (2004) Lessons from natural molecules. Nature 432:829–837. Google Scholar
  33. Clardy J, Fischbach MA, Walsh CT (2006) New antibiotics from bacterial natural products. Nat Biotechnol 24:1541–1550. Google Scholar
  34. Costello MJ, May RM, Stork NE (2013) Can we name Earth’s species before they go extinct? Science 339:413–416. Google Scholar
  35. Cragg GM, Newman DJ (2013) Natural products: a continuing source of novel drug leads. Biochim Biophys Acta Gen Subj 1830:3670–3695. Google Scholar
  36. Cragg GM, Grothaus PG, Newman DJ (2014) New horizons for old drugs and drug leads. J Nat Prod 77:703–723. Google Scholar
  37. Dagenais TRT, Keller NP (2009) Pathogenesis of Aspergillus fumigatus in invasive aspergillosis. Clin Microbiol Rev 22:447–465. Google Scholar
  38. Daly M, Brugler MR, Cartwright P et al (2007) The phylum Cnidaria: a review of phylogenetic patterns and diversity 300 years after Linnaeus. Zootaxa 1668:127–182Google Scholar
  39. David B (2018) New regulations for accessing plant biodiversity samples, what is ABS? Phytochem Rev 17:1211–1223. Google Scholar
  40. David B, Ausseil F (2014) High-throughput screening of plant chemodiversity. In: Meyers RA (ed) Encyclopedia of analytical chemistry. American Cancer Society, pp 1–24Google Scholar
  41. David B, Wolfender J-L, Dias DA (2015) The pharmaceutical industry and natural products: historical status and new trends. Phytochem Rev 14:299–315. Google Scholar
  42. Davis J, Jones A, Lewis RJ (2009) Remarkable inter- and intra-species complexity of conotoxins revealed by LC/MS. Peptides 30:1222–1227. Google Scholar
  43. de Lima Procópio RE, da Silva IR, Martins MK et al (2012) Antibiotics produced by Streptomyces. Braz J Infect Dis 16:466–471. Google Scholar
  44. De Silva DD, Rapior S, Sudarman E et al (2013) Bioactive metabolites from macrofungi: ethnopharmacology, biological activities and chemistry. Fungal Divers 62:1–40. Google Scholar
  45. Demain AL, Sanchez S (2009) Microbial drug discovery: 80 years of progress. J Antibiotics 62:5–16. Google Scholar
  46. Denning DW (2003) Echinocandin antifungal drugs. Lancet 362:1142–1151. Google Scholar
  47. Dhakal D, Pokhrel AR, Shrestha B, Sohng JK (2017) Marine rare actinobacteria: isolation, characterization, and strategies for harnessing bioactive compounds. Front Microbiol. Google Scholar
  48. Dias DA, Urban S, Roessner U (2012) A historical overview of natural products in drug discovery. Metabolites 2:303–336. Google Scholar
  49. DiMasi JA, Grabowski HG, Hansen RW (2016) Innovation in the pharmaceutical industry: new estimates of R&D costs. J Health Econ 47:20–33. Google Scholar
  50. Dischinger J, Josten M, Szekat C et al (2009) Production of the novel two-peptide lantibiotic lichenicidin by Bacillus licheniformis DSM 13. PLoS ONE 4:e6788. Google Scholar
  51. Ernst M, Grace OM, Saslis-Lagoudakis CH et al (2015) Global medicinal uses of Euphorbia L. (Euphorbiaceae). J Ethnopharmacol 176:90–101. Google Scholar
  52. Falk H, Wolkenstein K (2017) Natural product molecular fossils. In: Kinghorn D, Falk H, Gibbons S, Kobayashi J (eds) Progress in the chemistry of organic natural products, vol 104. Springer, Cham, pp 1–126. Google Scholar
  53. Frisvad JC, Smedsgaard J, Larsen TO, Samson RA (2004) Mycotoxins, drugs and other extrolites produced by species in Penicillium subgenus Penicillium. Stud Mycol 49:201–241Google Scholar
  54. Gao H, Li G, Lou H-X (2018) Structural diversity and biological activities of novel secondary metabolites from endophytes. Molecules 23:646. Google Scholar
  55. Gaudêncio S, Pereira F (2015) Dereplication: racing to speed up the natural products discovery process. Nat Prod Rep 32:779–810. Google Scholar
  56. Genilloud O (2017) Actinomycetes: still a source of novel antibiotics. Nat Prod Rep 34:1203–1232. Google Scholar
  57. Gershenzon J, Dudareva N (2007) The function of terpene natural products in the natural world. Nat Chem Biol 3:408–414. Google Scholar
  58. Goldbach-Mansky R (2009) Comparison of Tripterygium wilfordii Hook F versus sulfasalazine in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis: a randomized trial. Ann Intern Med 151:229. Google Scholar
  59. Goyal S, Ramawat KG, Mérillon JM (2016) Different shades of fungal metabolites: an overview. In: Mérillon JM, Ramawat KG (eds) Fungal metabolites. Springer, Cham, pp 1–29Google Scholar
  60. Gross H, Loper JE (2009) Genomics of secondary metabolite production by Pseudomonas spp. Nat Prod Rep 26:1408–1446. Google Scholar
  61. Haas D, Défago G (2005) Biological control of soil-borne pathogens by fluorescent pseudomonads. Nat Rev Microbiol 3:307–319. Google Scholar
  62. Harvey AL, Edrada-Ebel R, Quinn RJ (2015) The re-emergence of natural products for drug discovery in the genomics era. Nat Rev Drug Discov 14:111–129. Google Scholar
  63. Henkel T, Brunne RM, Müller H, Reichel F (1999) Statistical investigation into the structural complementarity of natural products and synthetic compounds. Angew Chem Int Ed 38:643–647.;2-G Google Scholar
  64. Henry SH, Bosch FX, Bowers JC (2002) Aflatoxin, hepatitis and worldwide liver cancer risks. In: DeVries JW, Trucksess MW, Jackson LS (eds) Mycotoxins and food safety. Springer, Boston, pp 229–233Google Scholar
  65. Hu G-P, Yuan J, Sun L et al (2011) Statistical research on marine natural products based on data obtained between 1985 and 2008. Mar Drugs 9:514–525. Google Scholar
  66. Huang M, Lu J-J, Huang M-Q et al (2012) Terpenoids: natural products for cancer therapy. Expert Opin Investig Drugs 21:1801–1818. Google Scholar
  67. Ivanescu B, Miron A, Corciova A (2015) Sesquiterpene lactones from Artemisia genus: biological activities and methods of analysis. J Anal Methods Chem. Google Scholar
  68. Jassbi AR (2006) Chemistry and biological activity of secondary metabolites in Euphorbia from Iran. Phytochemistry 67:1977–1984. Google Scholar
  69. Jose PA, Jebakumar SRD (2013) Non-streptomycete actinomycetes nourish the current microbial antibiotic drug discovery. Front Microbiol. Google Scholar
  70. Katz L, Baltz RH (2016) Natural product discovery: past, present, and future. J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol 43:155–176. Google Scholar
  71. Kayser O, Kiderlen AF, Croft SL (2003) Natural products as antiparasitic drugs. Parasitol Res 90:S55–S62. Google Scholar
  72. Kharwar RN, Mishra A, Gond SK et al (2011) Anticancer compounds derived from fungal endophytes: their importance and future challenges. Nat Prod Rep 28:1208–1228. Google Scholar
  73. King GF (2011) Venoms as a platform for human drugs: translating toxins into therapeutics. Expert Opin Biol Ther 11:1469–1484. Google Scholar
  74. Koch MA, Schuffenhauer A, Scheck M et al (2005) Charting biologically relevant chemical space: a structural classification of natural products (SCONP). Proc Natl Acad Sci 102:17272–17277. Google Scholar
  75. Kong D-X, Guo M-Y, Xiao Z-H et al (2011) Historical variation of structural novelty in a natural product library. Chem Biodivers 8:1968–1977. Google Scholar
  76. Kurtböke Dİ (2012) Biodiscovery from rare actinomycetes: an eco-taxonomical perspective. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 93:1843–1852. Google Scholar
  77. Langenheim JH (1994) Higher plant terpenoids: a phytocentric overview of their ecological roles. J Chem Ecol 20:1223–1280. Google Scholar
  78. Lawton EM, Cotter PD, Hill C, Ross RP (2007) Identification of a novel two-peptide lantibiotic, Haloduracin, produced by the alkaliphile Bacillus halodurans C-125. FEMS Microbiol Lett 267:64–71. Google Scholar
  79. Lazzarini A, Cavaletti L, Toppo G, Marinelli F (2000) Rare genera of actinomycetes as potential producers of new antibiotics. Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek 78:399–405. Google Scholar
  80. Leal MC, Puga J, Serôdio J et al (2012) Trends in the discovery of new marine natural products from invertebrates over the last two decades—where and what are we bioprospecting? PLoS ONE 7:e30580. Google Scholar
  81. Lewis RJ, Garcia ML (2003) Therapeutic potential of venom peptides. Nat Rev Drug Discov 2:790–802. Google Scholar
  82. Lindequist U, Niedermeyer THJ, Jülich W-D (2005) The pharmacological potential of mushrooms. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2:285–299. Google Scholar
  83. Locey KJ, Lennon JT (2016) Scaling laws predict global microbial diversity. Proc Natl Acad Sci 113:5970–5975. Google Scholar
  84. Mangal M, Sagar P, Singh H et al (2013) NPACT: naturally occurring plant-based anti-cancer compound–activity–target database. Nucleic Acids Res 41:D1124–D1129. Google Scholar
  85. Mariottini GL, Grice ID (2016) Antimicrobials from cnidarians. A new perspective for anti-infective therapy? Mar Drugs 14:48. Google Scholar
  86. May RM (2010) Tropical arthropod species, more or less? Science 329:41–42. Google Scholar
  87. Mehbub MF, Lei J, Franco C, Zhang W (2014) Marine sponge derived natural products between 2001 and 2010: trends and opportunities for discovery of bioactives. Mar Drugs 12:4539–4577. Google Scholar
  88. Miller CM, Miller RV, Garton-Kenny D et al (1998) Ecomycins, unique antimycotics from Pseudomonas viridiflava. J Appl Microbiol 84:937–944. Google Scholar
  89. Mishra HN, Das C (2003) A review on biological control and metabolism of aflatoxin. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 43:245–264. Google Scholar
  90. Mishra BB, Tiwari VK (2011) Natural products: an evolving role in future drug discovery. Eur J Med Chem 46:4769–4807. Google Scholar
  91. Mora C, Tittensor DP, Adl S et al (2011) How many species are there on earth and in the ocean? PLoS Biol 9:e1001127. Google Scholar
  92. Newman DJ, Cragg GM (2016) Natural products as sources of new drugs from 1981 to 2014. J Nat Prod 79:629–661. Google Scholar
  93. Ntie-Kang F, Zofou D, Babiaka SB et al (2013) AfroDb: a select highly potent and diverse natural product library from African medicinal plants. PLoS ONE 8:e78085. Google Scholar
  94. Oprea TI (2000) Current trends in lead discovery: are we looking for the appropriate properties? Mol Divers 5:199–208. Google Scholar
  95. Palazzolo AME, Simons CLW, Burke MD (2017) The natural productome. Proc Natl Acad Sci 114:5564–5566. Google Scholar
  96. Pascolutti M, Campitelli M, Nguyen B et al (2015) Capturing nature’s diversity. PLoS ONE 10:e0120942. Google Scholar
  97. Paterson RRM (2006) Ganoderma—a therapeutic fungal biofactory. Phytochemistry 67:1985–2001. Google Scholar
  98. Patridge E, Gareiss P, Kinch MS, Hoyer D (2016) An analysis of FDA-approved drugs: natural products and their derivatives. Drug Discov Today 21:204–207. Google Scholar
  99. Pedrós-Alió C (2006) Marine microbial diversity: can it be determined? Trends Microbiol 14:257–263. Google Scholar
  100. Peláez F (2005) Biological activities of fungal metabolites. In: An Z (ed) Handbook of industrial mycology. Marcel Dekker, New York, pp 49–92Google Scholar
  101. Pimm SL, Joppa LN (2015) How many plant species are there, where are they, and at what rate are they going extinct? Ann Mo Bot Gard 100:170–176. Google Scholar
  102. Pimm SL, Jenkins CN, Abell R et al (2014) The biodiversity of species and their rates of extinction, distribution, and protection. Science 344:1246752. Google Scholar
  103. Pouny I, Batut M, Vendier L et al (2014) Cytisine-like alkaloids from Ormosia hosiei Hemsl. & E.H. Wilson. Phytochemistry 107:97–101. Google Scholar
  104. Pye CR, Bertin MJ, Lokey RS et al (2017) Retrospective analysis of natural products provides insights for future discovery trends. Proc Natl Acad Sci 114:5601–5606. Google Scholar
  105. Quinn RJ, Carroll AR, Pham NB et al (2008) Developing a drug-like natural product library. J Nat Prod 71:464–468. Google Scholar
  106. Rask-Andersen M, Masuram S, Schiöth HB (2014) The druggable genome: evaluation of drug targets in clinical trials suggests major shifts in molecular class and indication. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol 54:9–26. Google Scholar
  107. Reed JL, Palsson BØ (2003) Thirteen years of building constraint-based in silico models of Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol 185:2692–2699. Google Scholar
  108. Rocha J, Peixe L, Gomes NCM, Calado R (2011) Cnidarians as a source of new marine bioactive compounds—an overview of the last decade and future steps for bioprospecting. Mar Drugs 9:1860–1886. Google Scholar
  109. Rocha J, Calado R, Leal M (2015) Marine bioactive compounds from cnidarians. In: Kim SK (ed) Springer handbook of marine biotechnology. Springer, Berlin, pp 823–849Google Scholar
  110. Rosén J, Gottfries J, Muresan S et al (2009) Novel chemical space exploration via natural products. J Med Chem 52:1953–1962. Google Scholar
  111. Roskov Y, Abucay L, Orrell T et al (2018) Species 2000 & ITIS catalogue of life, 2018 annual checklist. Accessed 4 Jun 2018
  112. Russo M, Russo GL, Daglia M et al (2016) Understanding genistein in cancer: the “good” and the “bad” effects: a review. Food Chem 196:589–600. Google Scholar
  113. Sanchez JF, Somoza AD, Keller NP, Wang CCC (2012) Advances in Aspergillus secondary metabolite research in the post-genomic era. Nat Prod Rep 29:351–371. Google Scholar
  114. Sarker SD, Nahar L (2018) Chapter 1—an introduction to computational phytochemistry. In: Sarker SD, Nahar L (eds) Computational phytochemistry. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 1–41Google Scholar
  115. Scheffers BR, Joppa LN, Pimm SL, Laurance WF (2012) What we know and don’t know about Earth’s missing biodiversity. Trends Ecol Evol 27:501–510. Google Scholar
  116. Schmidt U, Struck S, Gruening B et al (2009) SuperToxic: a comprehensive database of toxic compounds. Nucleic Acids Res 37:D295–D299. Google Scholar
  117. Schoch CL, Sung G-H, López-Giráldez F et al (2009) The Ascomycota tree of life: a phylum-wide phylogeny clarifies the origin and evolution of fundamental reproductive and ecological traits. Syst Biol 58:224–239. Google Scholar
  118. Schulz B, Boyle C, Draeger S et al (2002) Endophytic fungi: a source of novel biologically active secondary metabolites. Mycol Res 106:996–1004. Google Scholar
  119. Sertuerner F (1817) Ueber das Morphium, eine neue salzfähige Grundlage, und die Mekonsäure, als Hauptbestandtheile des Opiums. Ann Phys 55:56–89. Google Scholar
  120. Shi Q-W, Su X-H, Kiyota H (2008) Chemical and pharmacological research of the plants in genus Euphorbia. Chem Rev 108:4295–4327. Google Scholar
  121. Stadler M, Hoffmeister D (2015) Fungal natural products—the mushroom perspective. Front Microbiol. Google Scholar
  122. Stein T (2005) Bacillus subtilis antibiotics: structures, syntheses and specific functions. Microbiol Mol 56:845–857. Google Scholar
  123. Stierle A, Strobel G, Stierle D (1993) Taxol and taxane production by Taxomyces andreanae, an endophytic fungus of Pacific yew. Science 260:214–216. Google Scholar
  124. Stone JK, Bacon CW, White JF (2000) An overview of endophytic microbes: endophytism defined. In: Bacon CW, White JF (eds) Microbial endophytes. Marcel Dekker, New York, pp 3–29Google Scholar
  125. Strebhardt K, Ullrich A (2008) Paul Ehrlich’s magic bullet concept: 100 years of progress. Nat Rev Cancer 8:473–480. Google Scholar
  126. Strobel G, Daisy B, Castillo U, Harper J (2004) Natural products from endophytic microorganisms. J Nat Prod 67:257–268. Google Scholar
  127. Su C-Y, Ming Q-L, Rahman K et al (2015) Salvia miltiorrhiza: traditional medicinal uses, chemistry, and pharmacology. Chin J Nat Med 13:163–182. Google Scholar
  128. Tan RX, Zou WX (2001) Endophytes: a rich source of functional metabolites. Nat Prod Rep 18:448–459. Google Scholar
  129. Tan D, Wu J, Zhang X et al (2018) Sodium tanshinone II a sulfonate injection as adjuvant treatment for unstable angina pectoris: a meta-analysis of 17 randomized controlled trials. Chin J Integr Med 24:156–160. Google Scholar
  130. Tao X, Lipsky PE (2000) The Chinese anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive herbal remedy Tripterygium wilfordii Hook. f. Rheum Dis Clin 26:29–50. Google Scholar
  131. Thacker RW, Starnes S (2003) Host specificity of the symbiotic cyanobacterium Oscillatoria spongeliae in marine sponges, Dysidea spp. Mar Biol 142:643–648. Google Scholar
  132. Thomas TRA, Kavlekar DP, LokaBharathi PA (2010) Marine drugs from sponge-microbe association—a review. Mar Drugs 8:1417–1468. Google Scholar
  133. Tiwari K, Gupta RK (2012) Rare actinomycetes: a potential storehouse for novel antibiotics. Crit Rev Biotechnol 32:108–132. Google Scholar
  134. Valli M, dos Santos RN, Figueira LD et al (2013) Development of a natural products database from the biodiversity of Brazil. J Nat Prod 76:439–444. Google Scholar
  135. Van Soest RWM, Boury-Esnault N, Vacelet J et al (2012) Global diversity of sponges (Porifera). PLoS ONE 7:e35105. Google Scholar
  136. Vasas A, Hohmann J (2014) Euphorbia diterpenes: isolation, structure, biological activity, and synthesis (2008–2012). Chem Rev 114:8579–8612. Google Scholar
  137. Veitch NC (2010) Flavonoid chemistry of the Leguminosae. In: Santos-Buelga C, Escribano-Bailon MT, Lattanzio V (eds) Recent advances in polyphenol research. Wiley-Blackwell, Hoboken, pp 23–58Google Scholar
  138. Wang J, Zhang L, Teng K et al (2014) Cerecidins, novel lantibiotics from Bacillus cereus with potent antimicrobial activity. Appl Environ Microbiol 80:2633–2643. Google Scholar
  139. Watve MG, Tickoo R, Jog MM, Bhole BD (2001) How many antibiotics are produced by the genus Streptomyces? Arch Microbiol 176:386–390. Google Scholar
  140. Whittle M, Willett P, Klaffke W, van Noort P (2003) Evaluation of similarity measures for searching the dictionary of natural products database. J Chem Inf Comput Sci 43:449–457. Google Scholar
  141. Wilson MC, Mori T, Rückert C et al (2014) An environmental bacterial taxon with a large and distinct metabolic repertoire. Nature 506:58–62. Google Scholar
  142. Wink M (2013) Evolution of secondary metabolites in legumes (Fabaceae). S Afr J Bot 89:164–175. Google Scholar
  143. World Health Organization (2008) WHO|“Beijing declaration.” In: WHO. Accessed 16 Dec 2018
  144. Wu Y-B, Ni Z-Y, Shi Q-W et al (2012) Constituents from Salvia species and their biological activities. Chem Rev 112:5967–6026. Google Scholar
  145. Xue R, Fang Z, Zhang M et al (2013) TCMID: traditional Chinese medicine integrative database for herb molecular mechanism analysis. Nucleic Acids Res 41:D1089–D1095. Google Scholar
  146. Ye H, Ye L, Kang H et al (2011) HIT: linking herbal active ingredients to targets. Nucleic Acids Res 39:D1055–D1059. Google Scholar
  147. Yuen JWM, Gohel MDI (2005) Anticancer effects of Ganoderma lucidum: a review of scientific evidence. Nutr Cancer 53:11–17. Google Scholar
  148. Zambelli VO, Pasqualoto KFM, Picolo G et al (2016) Harnessing the knowledge of animal toxins to generate drugs. Pharmacol Res 112:30–36. Google Scholar
  149. Zhu F, Qin C, Tao L et al (2011) Clustered patterns of species origins of nature-derived drugs and clues for future bioprospecting. Proc Natl Acad Sci 108:12943–12948. Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Center for the Study of Human HealthEmory UniversityAtlantaUSA
  2. 2.UMR 5505, CNRS, Computer Science Department, Informatics Research Institute of Toulouse (IRIT)Université Toulouse 3 – Paul SabatierToulouseFrance
  3. 3.Green Mission Pierre FabreInstitut de Recherche Pierre FabreToulouseFrance
  4. 4.PharmaDev, UMR 152 IRDUniversité Toulouse 3 – Paul SabatierToulouseFrance

Personalised recommendations