Cedrela and Toona genera: a rich source of bioactive limonoids and triterpenoids

  • Marinella De Leo
  • Luigi Milella
  • Alessandra Braca
  • Nunziatina De Tommasi
Article
  • 38 Downloads

Abstract

Cedrela P. Browne is a genus of trees, strictly related to Toona, in the Meliaceae, a family of flowering plants in the order Sapindales, which is among the most diverse sources of secondary metabolites in the Angiospermae. The most abundant metabolites in these genera are limonoids, tetranortriterpenes possessing diverse structural features, apotirucallanes, tirucallanes, and other triterpenes. The chemical constituents isolated from the genera Cedrela and Toona over the past decades, together with their biological activities, have been compiled in this article. The allelochemical and the phytotoxic activity of limonoids and triterpenoids seem to play a crucial role in the ecological function of these metabolites. While, the most promising use in human field seems related to their antimalarial and anti-inflammatory effects, even that further investigation are still needed.

Keywords

Cedrela Toona Meliaceae Limonoids Triterpenoids Biological activity 

Abbreviations

ABTS

2,2′-Azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid)

COX

Cyclooxygenase

ECD

Electronic circular dichroism

DPPH

2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl

HKII

Hexokinase II

IC50

Half maximal inhibitory concentration

iNOS

Inducible nitric oxide synthase

IL

Interleukin

LC50

Half maximal lethal concentration

LPS

Lipopolysaccharide

MIC

Minimal Inhibitory Concentration

NF-κB

Nuclear Factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells

NO

Nitric oxide

PTP1B

Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B

STS

Standard target species

TNF

Tumor Necrosis Factor

THP-1

Human leukemia monocytic cell line

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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Dipartimento di FarmaciaUniversità di PisaPisaItaly
  2. 2.Dipartimento di ScienzeUniversità degli Studi della BasilicataPotenzaItaly
  3. 3.Dipartimento di FarmaciaUniversità di SalernoFiscianoItaly

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