International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy

, Volume 41, Issue 1, pp 207–214 | Cite as

Potential inappropriate prescribing and associated factors among older persons in Nigeria and South Africa

  • Sule Ajibola SakaEmail author
  • Frasia Oosthuizen
  • Manimbulu Nlooto
Research Article


Background Potential inappropriate prescribing (PIP) among older persons is a global public health issue. However, trans-country data that can influence interventions on a global or regional level is scarce. Objectives To compare the prevalence of PIP and to determine the associated factors among older Nigerians and South Africans. Settings Nigerian and South African teaching hospitals. Method A retrospective evaluation of randomly selected medical charts of older persons was carried out in outpatient clinics of one University teaching hospital in both Nigeria and South Africa. Older persons aged ≥ 60 years who attended the hospitals’ clinics between 1st January and 31st December 2016 and received medicine prescriptions were included. The PIP was evaluated using the 2015 American Geriatrics Society-Beers Criteria. The prevalence of PIP in both countries was compared and the associated factors for their occurrence determined using a binary logistic regression. Main outcome measure Prevalence of PIP and associated factors among older outpatients. Results A total of 680 participants were evaluated, 352 in Nigeria, mean age 69.03 (7.35) years, and 328 in South Africa, mean age 68.21 (7.42) years (95% CI − 0.28 to 1.94, p = 0.14). The PIP among Nigerian and South African participants were (124/352; 35.2%) versus (97/328; 29.6%) respectively (OR 0.77, 95% CI 0.56–1.06, p = 0.12). Hypertension was significantly associated with PIP among the Nigerians (OR 2.56, 95% CI 1.57–4.17, p = < 0.001) and South Africans (OR 3.11, 95% CI 1.17–8.24, p = 0.02) in a logistic regression. Conclusions The prevalence and pattern of PIP among Nigerian and South African participants were similar. Hypertension was an associated factor for PIP among the participants in both countries.


Beers Criteria Inappropriate prescribing Nigeria Older persons Potentially inappropriate prescribing South Africa 



We would like to thank the management and staff of the study sites for their cooperation.


This study received no funding from any source.

Conflicts of interest

The authors declare that no conflict of interest exists in the study.

Supplementary material

11096_2018_770_MOESM1_ESM.docx (17 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 16 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sule Ajibola Saka
    • 1
    Email author
  • Frasia Oosthuizen
    • 1
  • Manimbulu Nlooto
    • 1
  1. 1.Discipline of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Health SciencesUniversity of KwaZulu-NatalDurbanSouth Africa

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