Advertisement

International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy

, Volume 40, Issue 5, pp 1309–1316 | Cite as

Development and validation of an Ambulatory Care Patient Satisfaction Questionnaire to assess pharmacy services in Malaysia

  • Pauline Siew Mei LaiEmail author
  • Wen Wei Chung
  • Li Shean Toh
  • Sajaratulnisah Othman
Research Article
  • 101 Downloads

Abstract

Background Assessing patient satisfaction regarding a pharmacy ambulatory care service is important as patient satisfaction is a determinant of the viability and sustainability of the service provided. Objective To develop and validate the Ambulatory Care Patient Satisfaction Questionnaire in Malaysia. Setting A public hospital in Malaysia with two outpatient pharmacies. The main outpatient pharmacy has an average waiting time of 1–2 h; whilst PharmCARE (which prepares repeat prescriptions in advance) has an average waiting time of 5–15 min. Method Our instrument was developed based on literature review, a theoretical framework and an expert panel. The initial version consisted of 20 Likert-type items (where a higher score indicates higher satisfaction) was administered to patients/carers who were ≥ 21 years, from November 2015 to June 2016 at baseline and 2 weeks later. Main outcome measure The psychometric properties of the instrument. Results A total of 200/220 participants agreed to participate (response rate = 90.9%): main outpatient pharmacy = 114, PharmCARE = 86. Flesch reading ease was 51.9. The final version consists of 17 items with five domains measuring information (4 items), accessibility (4 items), relationship (4 items), outcomes (2 items) and continuity of care (3 items). Participants who collected their medications from PharmCARE [78.0% (72.8–81.3)] were significantly more satisfied than participants from the main outpatient pharmacy [72.0% (68.0–76.0), p < 0.001]. The overall Cronbach’s alpha value was 0.839. Kappa values ranged from 0.681 to 0.914. Conclusion Our instrument was found to be a valid and reliable instrument to assess satisfaction of patients towards an ambulatory care pharmacy service in Malaysia.

Keywords

Ambulatory care pharmacy service Malaysia Patient satisfaction Questionnaire development Validation 

Notes

Acknowledgements

We would like to thank Professor Karuthan Chinna (statistician), Taylors University, Malaysia for assisting us in our statistics, and to Nadia Nurdiana Mohd Faizal and Yap Han Yee for assisting us in data collection.

Funding

Funding for this study was obtained from the University Malaya Research Grant RP015-13HTM and the University of Malaya Postgraduate Studies Fund PV018-2012A.

Conflicts of interest

None.

Supplementary material

11096_2018_721_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (47 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (PDF 46 kb)

References

  1. 1.
    Gourley GA, Duncan DV. Patient satisfaction and quality of life: humanistic outcomes. Am J Manag C. 1998;4:746–55.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Ware JE, Snyder MK, Wright R, Davies AR. Defining and measuring patient satisfaction with medical care. Eval Program Plan. 1983;6:247–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Wermeille J, Bennie M, Brown I, McKnight J. Pharmaceutical care model for patients with type 2 diabetes: integration of the community pharmacist into the diabetes team–a pilot study. Pharm World Sci. 2004;26:18–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Nichols-English GJ, Provost M, Koompalum D, Chen H, Athar M. Strategies for pharmacists in the implementation of diabetes mellitus management programs. Dis Manag Health Out. 2002;10:783–803.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Singhal PK, Gupchup GV, Raisch DW, Schommer JC, Holdsworth MT. Impact of pharmacists’ directive guidance behaviours on patient satisfaction. J Am Pharm Assoc. 2002;42:407–12.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Roughead EE, Semple SJ, Vitry AI. Pharmaceutical care services: a systematic review of published studies, 1990–2003, examining effectiveness in improving patient outcomes. Int J Pharm Pract. 2005;13:53–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Gourley GK, Gourley DR, Rigolosi ELM, Reed P, Solomon DK, Washington E. Development and validation of the pharmaceutical care satisfaction questionnaire. Am J Manag C. 2001;7:461–6.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Kim S, Martin MT, Pierce AL, Zueger P. Satisfaction with medication therapy management services at a university ambulatory care clinic. J Pharm Pract. 2016;29:199–205.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Larson LN, Rovers JP, MacKeigan LD. Patient satisfaction with pharmaceutical care: update of a validated instrument. J Am Pharm Assoc. 2002;42:44–50.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Hernandez L, Chang CH, Cella D, Corona M, Shiomoto G, McGuire DB. Development and validation of the satisfaction with pharmacist scale. Pharmacotheraphy. 2000;20:837–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Moczygemba LR, Barner JC, Brown CM, Lawson KA, Gabrillo ER, Godley P, et al. Patient satisfaction with a pharmacist-provided telephone medication therapy management program. Res Soc Admin Pharm. 2010;6:143–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Sakharkar P, Bounthavong M, Hirsch JD, Morello CM, Chen TC, Law AV. Development and validation of PSPSQ 2.0 measuring patient satisfaction with pharmacist services. Res Soc Admin Pharm. 2015;11:487–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Traverso ML, Salamano M, Botta C, Colautti M, Palchik V, Perez B. Questionnaire to assess patient satisfaction with pharmaceutical care in Spanish language. Int J Qual Health Care. 2007;19:217–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Hasan S, Sulieman H, Stewart K, Chapman CB, Hasan MY, Kong DC. Assessing patient satisfaction with community pharmacy in the UAE using a newly-validated tool. Res Social Admin Pharm. 2013;9:841–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Krass I, Costa D, Dhippayom T. Development and validation of the Attitudes to Pharmacist Services for Diabetes Scale (APSDS). Res Social Admin Pharm. 2015;11:74–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Horvat N, Kos M. Development and initial validation of a patient satisfaction with pharmacy performance questionnaire (PSPP-Q). Eval Health Prof. 2010;33:197–215.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Toh LS, Lai PSM, Wong KT, Tan ATB, Low BY, Anderson C, et al. The development and validation of the satisfaction questionnaire for osteoporosis prevention in Malaysia. Patient Prefer Adherence. 2014;8:1365–81.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Lai PSM, Chua SS, Chan SP, Low WY, Wong ICK. Development and validation of the osteoporosis patient satisfaction questionnaire (OPSQ). Maturitas. 2010;65:55–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Thirusanku J, Yunus MM. The many faces of Malaysian English. ISRN Education. 2012.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Anonymous. The Flesch reading ease readibility formula. 2015 [cited 2015 6 May]. http://www.readabilityformulas.com/flesch-reading-ease-readability-formula.php.
  21. 21.
    University Malaya Medical Centre. Waiting time at the outpatient pharmacy 2016.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    University Malaya Medical Centre. Waiting time at PharmCare 2016.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Cattel. The scientific use of factor analysis. New York: Plenum; 1978. pp. 273–320.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Hoyle RH. Confirmatory factor analysis. Handbook of applied multivariate statistics and mathematical modeling. ‎Cambridge: Academic Press; 2000. p. 465–97.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Hartono E, Holsapple CW, Kim K-Y, Na K-S, Simpson JT. Measuring perceived security in B2C electronic commerce website usage: a respecification and validation. Decis Support Syst. 2014;62:11–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Cronbach LJ, Deken JE, Webb N. Research on classrooms and schools: formulation of questions, Design and analysis. Stanford Univ., Calif. Stanford Evaluation Consortium. Russell Sage Foundation, New York. 1976.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Landis JR, Koch GG. The measurement of observer agreement for categorical data. Biometrics. 1977;33:159–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Kincaid JP, Fishburne J, Robert P, Rogers RL, Chissom BS. Derivation of New Readability Formulas (Automated Readability Index, Fog Count and Flesch Reading Ease Formula) for Navy Enlisted Personnel. 1975 [cited 2017 May 23]. www.dtic.mil/dtic/tr/fulltext/u2/a006655.pdf.
  29. 29.
    Fries J, Rose M, Krishnan E. The promise of better outcome assessment: responsiveness, floor and ceiling effects, and internet administration. J Rheum. 2011.  https://doi.org/10.3899/jrheum.110402.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Hassali MA, Alrasheedy AA, Ab Razak BA, Al-Tamimi SK, Saleem F, Ul Haq N, et al. Assessment of general public satisfaction with public healthcare services in Kedah, Malaysia. Australas Med J. 2014;7:35–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Surur AS, Teni FS, Girmay G, Moges E, Tesfa M, Abraha M. Satisfaction of clients with the services of an outpatient pharmacy at a university hospital in northwestern Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study. BMC Health Serv Res. 2015;15:229.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Primary Care MedicineUniversity of Malaya Primary Care Research Group, University of MalayaKuala LumpurMalaysia
  2. 2.Department of PharmacyUniversity Malaya Medical CentreKuala LumpurMalaysia
  3. 3.Division of PharmacyUniversity of TasmaniaHobartAustralia

Personalised recommendations