Advertisement

International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy

, Volume 40, Issue 5, pp 982–986 | Cite as

A simulated patient study assessing over the counter supply and counseling in Jordan: responding to headache complaints

  • Eman A. HammadEmail author
  • Eman Elayeh
  • Razan Tubeileh
  • Margaret Watson
  • Mayyada Wazaify
Short Research Report
  • 113 Downloads

Abstract

Background Community pharmacists are the most accessible health professionals for patients seeking advice on minor ailments and over the counter supply. Objectives To assess the management of patients seeking advice for headache in community pharmacies in Jordan. Method A cross-sectional study was conducted using simulated patient in three cities in Jordan. A trained simulated patient enacted an advice-seeking scenario for the treatment of a headache. The visits were evaluated using pre-defined criteria relating to content and communication skills. Results Of 72 community pharmacies invited, 50 (69.4%) agreed to participate. Of these, 38 (76%) pharmacies were visited. The median duration of the visit was 2 min (20 s–4 min). All visits resulted in selling a drug. Paracetamol combinations often with caffeine were recommended in over 50% of visits. Drug sale recommendations were often made without obtaining essential information about symptoms or patient medical history. Only brand names and doses were often highlighted to the simulated patient. No written information was offered. Conclusion Community pharmacies in Jordan appear not to offer adequate counseling for patients seeking advice for headache. Both counseling and communication skills are suboptimal. Exploration of factors and reasons of suboptimal practice is recommended.

Keywords

Community pharmacy service Counseling Headache Jordan Simulated patients 

Notes

Acknowledgements

We are grateful to all pharmacies that agreed to take part in the study. We wish to thank Farah Shorman and Abdulfattah Al-kadash for the help in data collection. Moreover, the authors would like to thank Deanship of Academic Research at The University of Jordan for funding this project.

Funding

This work was supported by the Deanship of Academic Research, The University of Jordan (Grant Numbers 1637, 2014).

Conflicts of interest

All authors of the manuscript declare no completing or conflict of interests. They have no direct or indirect financial relationship with any official or non-official body.

References

  1. 1.
    Mossialos E, Courtin E, Naci H, Benrimoj S, Bouvy M, Farris K, et al. From “retailers” to health care providers: transforming the role of community pharmacists in chronic disease management. Health Policy. 2015;119:628–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    World Health Organization. Atlas of headache disorders and resources in the world 2011. http://www.who.int/mental_health/management/atlas_headache_disorders/en. Accessed 20 May 2018.
  3. 3.
    Alzoubi KH, Mhaidat N, Azzam SA, Khader Y, Salem S, Issaifan H, et al. Prevalence of migraine and tension-type headache among adults in Jordan. J Headache Pain. 2009;10:265–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Almaaytah A, Mukattash TL, Hajaj J. Dispensing of non-prescribed antibiotics in Jordan. Patient Prefer Adherence. 2015;9:1389.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Mesquita AR, Lyra DP, Brito GC, Balisa-Rocha BJ, Aguiar PM, De Almeida Neto AC. Developing communication skills in pharmacy: a systematic review of the use of simulated patient methods. Patient Educ Couns. 2010;78:143–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Alenezi NA, Wazaify M, Albsoul-Younes A. Evaluation of outpatient-pharmacists’ counseling behavior and content in a teaching hospital in Jordan-an observational study. JJPS. 2014;7:77–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Santos AP, Mesquita AR, Oliveira KS, Lyra DP. Assessment of community pharmacists’ counselling skills on headache management by using the simulated patient approach: a pilot study. Pharm Pract. 2013;11(1):3–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Horvat N, Koder M, Kos M. Using the simulated patient methodology to assess paracetamol-related counselling for headache. PLoS ONE. 2012;7(12):e52510.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Berger K, Eickhoff C, Schulz M. Counselling quality in community pharmacies: implementation of the pseudo customer methodology in Germany. J Clin Pharm Ther. 2005;30:45–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Biopharmaceutics and Clinical Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, School of PharmacyUniversity of JordanAmmanJordan
  2. 2.Department of Pharmacy and PharmacologyThe University of BathBathUK

Personalised recommendations