International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy

, Volume 40, Issue 3, pp 533–542 | Cite as

Quality pharmacy services and key performance indicators in Polish NICUs: a Delphi approach

  • Natalia KrzyżaniakEmail author
  • Iga Pawłowska
  • Beata Bajorek
Research Article


Background Currently, there is no literature describing what a quality level of practice entails in Polish neonatal intensive care units (NICUs), nor are there any means of currently measuring the quality of pharmaceutical care provided to NICU patients. Objective To identify a set of essential pharmacist roles and pharmacy-relevant key performance indicators (KPI’s) suitable for Polish neonatal intensive units (NICUs). Setting Polish hospital pharmacies and NICUs. Method Using a modified Delphi technique, potential KPI’s structured along Donabedian’s domains as well as pharmacy services were presented to an expert panel of stakeholders. Two online, consecutive Delphi rounds, were completed by panellists between August and September 2017. Main outcome measure To identify the minimum level of pharmacy services that should be consistently provided to NICU patients. Results A total of 16 panellists contributed to the expert panel. Overall, consensus of 75% was reached for 23 indicators and for 28 roles. When considering pharmacy services for the NICU, the experts were found to highly value traditional pharmacy roles, such as dispensing and extemporaneous compounding, however, they were still eager for roles in the other domains, such as educational and clinical services, to be listed as essential for NICU practice. Panellists were found to positively value the list of indicators presented, and excluded only 9 out of the total list. Conclusion There is a need for future research to establish a minimum standard of practice for Polish pharmacists to encourage the progression and standardisation of hospital pharmacy services to meet the level of practice seen in NICUs worldwide.


Delphi technique Key performance indicators Neonatal Intensive Care Unit Pharmaceutical care Poland Quality measurement 



The authors would like to express their sincere gratitude to all of the experts in Poland who participated in this research.



Conflicts of interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Graduate School of Health (Pharmacy)University of Technology SydneyUltimoAustralia
  2. 2.Department of PharmacologyMedical University of GdanskGdańskPoland

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