Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder pharmacotherapy in Slovenian adults: a population-based study
- 123 Downloads
Background Pharmacotherapy is the first line treatment for adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and the percentage of treated patients may indicate the quality of treatment of adult ADHD. The main aim of this study was to investigate the rates of pharmacological treatment for adult ADHD in Slovenia from 2003 to 2015. Methods The number of prescriptions per patient was obtained for three different age groups (18–24, 25–49, 50 + age group). The national consumption rates were obtained from the national database. The only drugs that were available and were included in this study were methylphenidate (MPH) and atomoxetine (ATX). Results Between 2003 and 2015 the rate of patients aged 18–24 who were treated with MPH increased from 0.8 per 10,000 people aged 18–24 to 8.9 per 10,000 people, while the increase in the other two age groups was less substantial (25–49, 50 + age group). The rate of patients aged 18–24 treated with ATX in 2015 was 7.3 per 10,000 people and 2.2 per 10,000 people in the 25–49 age category and 0.28 in the 50 + age group category. Conclusion Prescription rates of ADHD medication have increased dramatically in the study period. The high proportion of ADHD patients treated with ATX can be explained by low adherence to treatment guidelines. This is the first study to compare ADHD pharmacotherapy across different adult age groups in this part of Europe, so the results could be widely relevant.
KeywordsAdults Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder Pharmacotherapy Pharmacoepidemiology Slovenia
Conflicts of interest
The authors have no personal affiliations, financial relationship or any commercial interest to disclose relative to this article. The submitted report or any essential part of it is not published or simultaneously submitted to other publications prior to its appearance in this Journal.
- 5.Bolea-Alamañac B, Nutt DJ, Adamou M, Asherson P, Bazire S, Coghill D, et al. Evidence-based guidelines for the pharmacological management of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: update on recommendations from the British Association for Psychopharmacology. J Psychopharmacol. 2014;28:179–203.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 6.Stuhec M, Munda B, Svab V, Locatelli I. Comparative efficacy and acceptability of atomoxetine, lisdexamfetamine, bupropion and methylphenidate in treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children and adolescents: a meta-analysis with focus on bupropion. J Affect Disord. 2015;178:149–59.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 8.Faraone SV, Biederman J, Spencer TJ, Aleardi M. Comparing the efficacy of medications for ADHD using meta-analysis. Med Gen Med. 2006;8:4.Google Scholar
- 11.Schubert I, Köster I, Lehmkuhl G. The changing prevalence of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and methylphenidate prescriptions: a study of data from a random sample of insurees of the AOK Health Insurance Company in the German State of Hesse, 2000–2007. Dtsch Arztebl Int. 2010;107:615–21.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 13.van den Ban E, Souverein P, Swaab H, van Engeland H, Heerdink R, Egberts T. Trends in incidence and characteristics of children, adolescents, and adults initiating immediate-or extended-release methylphenidate or atomoxetine in the Netherlands during 2001–2006. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol. 2010;20:55–61.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar