International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy

, Volume 40, Issue 2, pp 403–411 | Cite as

Patients’ perceptions of pharmacist-managed diabetes services in the ambulatory care and community settings within Singapore

  • Melanie Yee Lee Siaw
  • Jing Heng Toh
  • Joyce Yu-Chia LeeEmail author
Research Article


Background Qualitative evidence on patients’ perceptions of pharmacist-managed diabetes services (PMDSs) is limited. Objective To explore patients’ perceptions of PMDSs Setting Patients being cared for in the outpatient settings in Singapore. Methods This focus group included patients who were diagnosed with type 2 diabetes, spoke either English or Mandarin, attended PMDSs for at least 6 months in the ambulatory care or community settings, and were at least 21 years of age. Patients with cognitive impairments or mobility issues were excluded. Thematic analysis of transcribed audio recordings was undertaken. Main outcomes measure Patients’ care experiences with PMDSs. Results A total of 26 patients from two outpatient ambulatory care clinics and three retail pharmacies were assembled into four focus groups based on the care setting. Four themes abstracted from focus group data illustrated patients’ perspectives on PMDSs in fulfilling their health needs, delivery and quality of service, changes attributed to the service, and suggestions for improvement of service. The patients highlighted that PMDSs fulfilled their need for information on diabetes. They also felt comfortable speaking to the pharmacists about their health, and they appreciated the role of the pharmacists as healthcare professionals. Furthermore, the patients reported better diabetes-related self-empowerment via increased medication knowledge and lifestyle modification. Some of the patients noted that medication adherence and glycemic control had improved. Suggestions to improve PMDSs were minimal. Conclusions Overall, patients with type 2 diabetes had positive perceptions of PMDSs regardless of the care settings.


Ambulatory care Community pharmacy service Diabetes mellitus Pharmacist Qualitative research Singapore 



The authors would like to thank Soo Im Ong and Evonne Yanqun Lee for their administrative support.


This study was funded by the Health Services Research Competitive Research Grant from Ministry of Health, Singapore (HSRG/11MAY/016).

Conflicts of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Melanie Yee Lee Siaw
    • 1
  • Jing Heng Toh
    • 1
  • Joyce Yu-Chia Lee
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of ScienceNational University of SingaporeSingaporeRepublic of Singapore

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