Levetiracetam versus phenytoin for seizure prophylaxis in brain injured patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis
- 478 Downloads
Background The onset of early and/or late seizures in brain injured patients is associated with worse outcome. So far, phenytoin is the most commonly used antiepileptic drug to prevent seizures in this group of patients. Objective In the current metaanalysis, we aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of phenytoin versus levetiracetam for seizure prophylaxis in brain injured patients. Methods A systematic search was conducted in PubMed and Cochrane Library Database by 2 investigators. Four randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were included (295 patients). Data were extracted and the quality of each RCT was assessed. Results Levetiracetam was found to be more effective than phenytoin in seizure prophylaxis (OR = 0.23; CI 95% [0.09–0.56]; Q test p value = 0.18 and I2 = 38%). A trend toward less serious side effects was also found in patients treated with levetiracetam (OR = 0.27; CI 95% [0.07–1.07]; Q test p value = 0.72 and I2 = 0%). Conclusion Levetiracetam is more effective and safer than phenytoin for seizure prophylaxis in brain injured patients.
KeywordsEfficacy Levetiracetam Phenytoin, Prophylaxis Side effects Seizure
Conflicts of interest
- 8.Adams HP Jr, del Zoppo G, Alberts MJ, Bhatt DL, Brass L, Furlan A, et al. Guidelines for the early management of adults with ischemic stroke: a guideline from the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association Stroke Council, Clinical Cardiology Council, Cardiovascular Radiology and Intervention Council, and the Atherosclerotic Peripheral Vascular Disease and Quality of Care Outcomes in Research Interdisciplinary Working Groups: the American Academy of Neurology affirms the value of this guideline as an educational tool for neurologists. Stroke. 2007;38(5):1655–711.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 17.Lim DA, Tarapore P, Chang E, Burt M, Chakalian L, Barbaro N, et al. Safety and feasibility of switching from phenytoin to levetiracetam monotherapy for glioma-related seizure control following craniotomy: a randomized phase II pilot study. J Neurooncol. 2009;93(3):349–54.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 26.Weston J, Greenhalgh J, Marson AG. Antiepileptic drugs as prophylaxis for post-craniotomy seizures. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015;3:Cd007286.Google Scholar