International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy

, Volume 38, Issue 6, pp 1436–1444 | Cite as

Impact of clinical pharmacy interventions on medication error nodes

  • Nibal R. Chamoun
  • Rony Zeenny
  • Hanine MansourEmail author
Research Article


Background Pharmacists’ involvement in patient care has improved the quality of care and reduced medication errors. However, this has required a lot of work that could not have been accomplished without documentation of interventions. Several means of documenting errors have been proposed in the literature but without a consistent comprehensive process. Recently, the American College of Clinical Pharmacy (ACCP) recognized that pharmacy practice lacks a consistent process for direct patient care and discussed several options for a pharmaceutical care plan, essentially encompassing medication therapy assessment, development and implementation of a pharmaceutical care plan and finally evaluation of the outcome. Therefore, as per the recommendations of ACCP, we sought to retrospectively analyze interventions by grouping them according to medication related problems (MRP) and their nodes such as prescribing; administering; monitoring; documenting and dispensing. Objective The aim of this study is to report interventions according to medication error (ME) nodes and show the impact of pharmacy interventions in reducing MRPs. Setting The study was conducted at the cardiology and infectious diseases services at a teaching hospital located in Beirut, Lebanon. Methods Intervention documentation was completed by pharmacy students on infectious diseases and cardiology rotations then reviewed by clinical pharmacists with respective specialties. Before data analysis, a new pharmacy reporting sheet was developed in order to link interventions according to MRP. Then, MRPs were grouped in the five ME nodes. During the documentation process, whether MRP had reached the patient or not may have not been reported which prevented the classification to the corresponding medication error nodes as ME. Main outcome Reduction in medication related problems across all ME nodes. Results A total of n = 1174 interventions were documented. N = 1091 interventions were classified as MRPs. Interventions were analyzed per 1000 patient days and resulted in 340 medication related problem/1000 patient days. A 72 % reduction in MRP across all ME nodes was seen. The majority of interventions were in the field of cardiology followed by infectious disease related. When interventions per ME nodes were analyzed, a high percentage of intervention acceptance was noted across all nodes especially prescribing (68.30 %) monitoring (77.7 %) and in documenting errors (79.36 %). Conclusion The role of pharmacists in reducing preventable MRPs can be shown when pharmacy interventions are analyzed according to corresponding MRP and ME nodes.


Interventions Lebanon Medication errors Medication related problems Medication error node Pharmacy Pharmacist 




Conflicts of interest


Supplementary material

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Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 47 kb)
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Supplementary material 2 (DOCX 140 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nibal R. Chamoun
    • 1
    • 2
  • Rony Zeenny
    • 2
  • Hanine Mansour
    • 2
    • 3
    Email author
  1. 1.Lebanese American University School of PharmacyByblosLebanon
  2. 2.Department of Pharmacy Practice, School of PharmacyLebanese American UniversityNew YorkUSA
  3. 3.Lebanese American UniversityByblosLebanon

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