International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy

, Volume 38, Issue 5, pp 1269–1276 | Cite as

Knowledge and perceptions of the risks of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs among orthopaedic patients in Thailand

  • Pacharaporn Phueanpinit
  • Juraporn Pongwecharak
  • Janet Krska
  • Narumol JarernsiripornkulEmail author
Research Article


Background There is a high incidence of adverse effects from non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in Thailand, but patients’ perceptions and knowledge of NSAID risks is unknown. Objective This study aims to assess patients’ perceptions and knowledge of NSAID risks and factors affecting them. Setting University hospital in North-East of Thailand. Method A Cross-sectional study conducted over 4 months, using a self-administered questionnaire. Patients prescribed NSAIDs for at least one month duration from orthopaedic clinic were recruited using systematic random sampling. Main outcome measure Patients’ perceptions on NSAID risks, knowledge on risk factors, and their associated factors. Results A total of 474 questionnaires were assessed. Overall perceptions of risks was low (scoring below five on a 0–10 visual analogue scale), with risks associated with the renal system scoring highest. Perceived risk of gastrointestinal problems differed between patients using non-selective and selective NSAIDs (3.47 ± 2.75 vs 2.06 ± 2.98; P < 0.001). Receiving side effect information from a health professional was associated with higher risk perception. Most patients (80 %) identified high doses, renal disease and gastrointestinal ulcer increased risks of NSAIDs, but fewer than half recognized that use in the elderly, multiple NSAID use, drinking, hypertension and cardiovascular disease also increased risk of adverse events. Having underlying diseases and receiving side effect information were associated with 1.6–2.0 fold increased knowledge of NSAID risks. Conclusion Perceptions and knowledge concerning NSAID risks was generally low in Thai patients, but higher in those who had received side effect information. Risk-related information should be widely provided, especially in high-risk patients.


Knowledge Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs Perception Risk factors Thailand 



We would like to thank Assist. Prof. Sermsak Sumanont and the Department of Orthopedic of Khon Kaen University for supporting this project. Additionally, we would like to thank all patients for sharing the information.


This work was supported by Khon Kaen University Integrate Multidisciplinary Research Cluster [Grant number MIH-2554-Ph.D-07] and the Graduate School of Khon Kaen University [Grant number 55222103].

Conflicts of interest

All authors declare that they have no conflict of interests to declare.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Pacharaporn Phueanpinit
    • 1
  • Juraporn Pongwecharak
    • 2
  • Janet Krska
    • 3
  • Narumol Jarernsiripornkul
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Clinical Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmaceutical SciencesKhon Kaen UniversityKhon KaenThailand
  2. 2.Faculty of PharmacyThammasat UniversityPathumthaniThailand
  3. 3.Medway School of PharmacyUniversities of Greenwich and KentKentUK

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