Advertisement

International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy

, Volume 38, Issue 4, pp 924–930 | Cite as

A mixed methods evaluation of a patient care clinic located within a pharmacy school

  • Derek J. JorgensonEmail author
  • Eric J. L. Landry
  • Katherine J. Lysak
Research Article

Abstract

Background The Medication Assessment Center is a faculty and student run patient care clinic located within the pharmacy school at the University of Saskatchewan (Canada). It was created as a novel experiential education site for pharmacy students and to provide clinical pharmacist services for complex patients who have trouble accessing services elsewhere. Objective To determine if the clinical services provided by faculty and students at the Medication Assessment Center are valuable to patients who are referred to the program. Setting The Medication Assessment Center, which is faculty and student run patient care clinic. Method Convergent mixed methods design comprised of a retrospective patient chart audit and a paper based patient experience survey. All patients who attended at least one appointment at the Medication Assessment Center between March 1, 2014 and July 31, 2015 were included in the chart audit. All new patients who were referred between April 1, 2015 and October 26, 2015 were included in the survey. Main outcome measures Recommendations made by the pharmacist and patient experience survey indicators. Results 173 patients were included in the chart audit, which found that patients were elderly (64.8 years), highly medically complex (13.8 medications and 6.5 diagnoses each), and had a large number of recommendations made by the pharmacist to adjust drug therapy (6.2 per patient). 121 questionnaires were mailed to patients with a response rate of 66.9 % (n = 81). The survey found high levels of support and satisfaction for the program, including more than half of patients (59.2 %) who reported that their health had improved as a result of the Medication Assessment Center. Conclusion The patient care and experiential education program offered by the Medication Assessment Center provides a valuable service to patients who are referred to the clinic.

Keywords

Canada Clinical experiences Experiential training Medication assessment Medication therapy management Pharmacy education Pharmacy practice 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors would like to acknowledge the many students within the College of Pharmacy and Nutrition at the University of Saskatchewan for their volunteerism at the Medication Assessment Center. Without their efforts, none of this would have been possible.

Funding

This study was funded by a research grant from the College of Pharmacy and Nutrition at the University of Saskatchewan (Canada).

Conflicts of interest

D. Jorgenson, E. Landry, and K. Lysak declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

11096_2016_313_MOESM1_ESM.docx (80 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 80 kb)

References

  1. 1.
    McLaughlin JE, Amerine LB, Chen SL, Luter DN, Arnall J, Smith S, et al. Early experiences for second-year student pharmacists at an academic medical center. Am J Pharm Educ. 2015;79(9):1–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Schmidt HG. Problem-based learning: rationale and description. Med Educ. 1983;17(1):11–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Yardley S, Teunissen PW, Dornan T. Experiential learning: AMEE guide no. 63. Med Teach. 2012;34(2):e102–15.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    The consensus of the pharmacy practice model summit. Am J Health Syst Pharm. 2011;68:1497–504.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Blueprint for Pharmacy Steering Committee. Blueprint for pharmacy: our way forward. Ottawa (ON): Canadian Pharmacists Association; 2013.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Walker PC, Kinsey KS, Kraft MD, Mason NA, Clark JS. Improving student education and patient care through an innovative introductory pharmacy practice experience. Am J Health Syst-Pharm. 2011;68(8):655–60.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Walker PC, Tucker-Jones JN, Mason NA. An advanced pharmacy practice experience in transitional care. Am J Pharm Educ. 2010;74(2):1–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Accreditation standards and key elements for the professional program in pharmacy leading to the doctor of pharmacy degree: Standards 2016. Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education (ACPE), Chicago, Illinois, 2015. https://www.acpe-accredit.org. Accessed February 2, 2016.
  9. 9.
    Accreditation standards for the first professional degree in pharmacy programs. The Canadian Council for Accreditation of Pharmacy Programs (CCAPP), Toronto, ON, 2014. http://www.ccapp-accredit.ca. Accessed February 2, 2016.
  10. 10.
    Frankel G, Louizos C, Austin Z. Canadian educational approaches for the advancement of pharmacy practice. Am J Pharm Educ. 2014;78(7):143.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Beck DE, Thomas SG, Janer AL. Introductory practice experiences: a conceptual framework. Am J Pharm Educ. 1996;60(2):122–31.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Spencer J. Learning and teaching in the clinical environment. BMJ. 2003;326(7389):591–4.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Dornan T, Bundy C. What can experience add to early medical education? BMJ. 2004;329(7470):834.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Littlewood S, Ypinazar V, Margolis SA, Scherpbier A, Spencer J, Dornan T. Early practical experience and the social responsiveness of clinical education: systematic review. BMJ. 2005;331(7513):387–91.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Dornan T, Littlewood S, Margolis SA, Scherpbier A, Spencer J, Ypinazar V. How can experience in clinical and community settings contribute to early medical education? A BEME systematic review. Med Teach. 2006;28(1):3–18.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Yardley S, Littlewood S, Margolis SA, Scherpbier A, Spencer J, Ypinazar V, et al. What has changed in the evidence for early experience? Update of a BEME systematic review. Med Teach. 2010;32(9):740–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Bareham J. Evaluation of a consultant pharmacist-delivered comprehensive medication management service [masters thesis]. Saskatoon: University of Saskatchewan, 2014.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Gobis B, Leung L, Min J, Thalakada R, Reardon J, Zed P. The UBC Pharmacists Clinic: a catalyst for practice change. Can Pharm J (Ott). 2016;149(1):9–12.CrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Tinelli M, Bond C, Blenkinsopp A, Jaffray M, Watson M, Hannaford P, et al. Patient evaluation of a community pharmacy medicines management service. Ann Pharmacother. 2007;41:1962–70.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Tan ECK, Stewart K, Elliott RA, George J. Pharmacist services in general practice clinics: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Res Social Adm Pharm. 2014;10:608–22.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Zermansky AG, Petty DR, Raynor DK, Freemantle N, Vail A, Lowe CJ. Randomised controlled trial of clinical medication review by a pharmacist of elderly patients receiving repeat prescriptions in general practice. BMJ. 2001;323:1–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Shimp LA, Kucukarslan SN, Elder J, Remington T, Wells T, Choe HM, et al. Employer-based patient-centered medication therapy management program: evidence and recommendations for future programs. J Am Pharm Assoc. 2012;52:768–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Dolovich L, Pottie K, Kaczorowski J, Farrell B, Austin Z, Rodriguez C, et al. Integrating family medieinc and pharmacy to advance primary care therapeutics. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2008;83(6):913–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Guetterman TC, Fetters MD, Creswell JW. Integrating quantitative and qualitative results in health science mixed methods research through joint displays. Ann Fam Med. 2015;13(6):554–61.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Boyatzis RE. Transforming qualitative information: thematic analysis and code development. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications Inc.; 1998.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Wass A. Promoting health: the primary health care approach. 2nd ed. Marrickville: Harcourt Australia; 2000.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Draugalis JR, Coons SJ, Plaza CM. Best practices for survey research reports: a synopsis for authors and reviewers. Am J Pharm Educ. 2008;72(1):1–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Medication Assessment Centre, College of Pharmacy and NutritionUniversity of SaskatchewanSaskatoonCanada

Personalised recommendations