International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy

, Volume 38, Issue 4, pp 899–907 | Cite as

Quality indicators to compare accredited independent pharmacies and accredited chain pharmacies in Thailand

  • Wiwat ArkaravichienEmail author
  • Apichaya Wongpratat
  • Sunee Lertsinudom
Research Article


Background Quality indicators determine the quality of actual practice in reference to standard criteria. The Community Pharmacy Association (Thailand), with technical support from the International Pharmaceutical Federation, developed a tool for quality assessment and quality improvement at community pharmacies. This tool has passed validity and reliability tests, but has not yet had feasibility testing. Objective (1) To test whether this quality tool could be used in routine settings. (2) To compare quality scores between accredited independent and accredited chain pharmacies. Setting Accredited independent pharmacies and accredited chain pharmacies in the north eastern region of Thailand. Methods A cross sectional study was conducted in 34 accredited independent pharmacies and accredited chain pharmacies. Quality scores were assessed by observation and by interviewing the responsible pharmacists. Data were collected and analyzed by independent t-test and Mann–Whitney U test as appropriate. Results were plotted by histogram and spider chart. Main outcome measure Domain’s assessable scores, possible maximum scores, mean and median of measured scores. Results Domain’s assessable scores were close to domain’s possible maximum scores. This meant that most indicators could be assessed in most pharmacies. The spider chart revealed that measured scores in the personnel, drug inventory and stocking, and patient satisfaction and health promotion domains of chain pharmacies were significantly higher than those of independent pharmacies (p < 0.05). There was no statistical difference between independent pharmacies and chain pharmacies in the premise and facility or dispensing and patient care domains. Conclusion Quality indicators developed by the Community Pharmacy Association (Thailand) could be used to assess quality of practice in pharmacies in routine settings. It is revealed that the quality scores of chain pharmacies were higher than those of independent pharmacies.


Accreditation Community pharmacy Quality indicator Thailand 



The authors would like to acknowledge the pharmacists for their interviews and their permission for data collection in their pharmacies. Special thanks are given to Dr. Jeff Johns and Dr. Glenn Borlace, Khon Kaen University, for English editing of this manuscript.


This work was supported by grants from the Graduate School and the Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Khon Kaen University.

Conflicts of interest

We declare no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Wiwat Arkaravichien
    • 1
    Email author
  • Apichaya Wongpratat
    • 1
  • Sunee Lertsinudom
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of Clinical Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmaceutical SciencesKhon Kaen UniversityKhon KaenThailand

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