International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy

, Volume 38, Issue 2, pp 438–445 | Cite as

Development and psychometric testing of the medication taking behavior tool in Thai patients

  • Phantipa SakthongEmail author
  • Nontapat Sonsa-Ardjit
  • Pattarin Sukarnjanaset
  • Wipaporn Munpan
  • Phattrapa Suksanga
Research Article


Background The previous Thai version of the 8-item Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (8-item MMAS) showed poor sensitivity and unacceptable internal consistency reliability. Objectives To develop and test the psychometric properties of a new medication taking behavior measure for Thai patients (MTB-Thai) including practicality, reliability and validity. Methods This study was conducted with adult outpatients regularly taking any medicines for at least three months from three university hospitals in Bangkok, Thailand, between July 2014 and March 2015. The study was approved by the Ethical Committees of the three hospitals. Practicality was assessed by administration time and the percentage of missing data. Internal consistency and test–retest reliability were evaluated employing Cronbach’s alpha and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs), respectively. Validity was evaluated with content, construct, convergent and known-groups validity. Results Of 1156 patients, the 6-item MTB-Thai had an average administration time of 2 min and no missing data. It showed good Cronbach’s alpha value of 0.76 and excellent ICCs of 0.83. The MTB-Thai showed good content validity with the item level and scale level of content validity indexes greater than the acceptable levels of 0.8 and 0.9, respectively. Both exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses showed the MTB-Thai had two domains including unintentional and intentional domains. The MTB-Thai correlated well with the overall medication adherence scale with a Pearson’s correlation coefficient of 0.62 (p < 0.001). The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of the MTB-Thai were 76, 35, 55 and 57 %, respectively. Conclusion The MTB-Thai was practical, reliable and valid in assessing mediation taking behaviors in Thai patients with chronic diseases.


Medication adherence Medication taking behavior MTB-Thai Psychometrics Test development Thailand 



The authors would like to thank all patients for their participation in the study, the hospital staff for assistance with the data collection, and Dr. Win Winit-Watjana and Dr. Stephen Pinder for kind help to edit the manuscript.


This study was funded by Thailand Research Fund, Chulalongkorn University and Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Chulalongkorn University (Grant Number: RSA 5580035).

Conflicts of interest

The authors do not have any conflicts of interest to declare.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Phantipa Sakthong
    • 1
    Email author
  • Nontapat Sonsa-Ardjit
    • 2
  • Pattarin Sukarnjanaset
    • 3
  • Wipaporn Munpan
    • 4
  • Phattrapa Suksanga
    • 5
  1. 1.Department of Pharmacy Practice, Faculty of Pharmaceutical SciencesChulalongkorn UniversityBangkokThailand
  2. 2.Pharmacy Unit, King Chulalongkorn Memorial HospitalBangkokThailand
  3. 3.Department of Pharmaceutical Care, Faculty of Pharmaceutical SciencesRangsit UniversityPathumthaniThailand
  4. 4.Pharmacy Unit, Phramongkutklao HospitalBangkokThailand
  5. 5.Pharmacy Unit, Khlung HospitalChanthaburiThailand

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