International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy

, Volume 37, Issue 6, pp 1180–1187 | Cite as

Clinical pharmacokinetics: perceptions of hospital pharmacists in Qatar about how it was taught and how it is applied

  • Nadir KheirEmail author
  • Ahmed Awaisu
  • Hoda Gad
  • Shereen Elazzazy
  • Farah Jibril
  • Mawadda Gajam
Research Article


Background The application of clinical pharmacokinetics (PK) is essential when providing pharmaceutical care. Appropriate application of PK monitoring results in improved patient outcomes including decreased mortality, length of treatment, length of hospital stay, and adverse effects of drug therapy. Despite the well-documented evidence of benefits of clinical PK services, many pharmacists find it challenging to apply PK in clinical practice. Objective To evaluate pharmacists’ training backgrounds, attitude, practices, and perceived barriers pertaining to the application of PK in clinical practice in Qatar. Setting All hospitals under Hamad Medical Corporation, the main healthcare provider in Qatar. Methodology This was a cross-sectional, descriptive study that was conducted between October 2012 and January 2013, using a self-administered web-based survey. Pharmacists were eligible to participate if they: (1) were working as full-time hospital pharmacists and; (2) have been in practice for at least 1 year. Main outcome measures PK contents learned in undergraduate curriculum; perception towards the PK contents and instructions received in the undergraduate curriculum and; application of PK in current clinical practice. Results A total of 112 pharmacists responded to the questionnaire. The majority of the respondents (n = 91; 81.3 %) reported that they had received PK course(s) in their undergraduate curriculum. Similarly, the majority (70–80 %) of them agreed that the undergraduate PK courses or contents they received were important and relevant to their current practice. The pharmacists identified spending more time on dispensing and inventory issues rather than clinical practice, scarce resources, and manual rather than computerized PK calculations as some of the barriers they encountered in learning about PK and its application. The characteristics of the surveyed pharmacists such as gender, age, highest academic degree, and country of graduation did not influence the pharmacists’ perception and attitudes towards PK teaching and application (p > 0.05). Conclusion PK course contents were perceived to lack depth and relevance to practice, and pharmacist had no experiential training that included aspects of PK. These, and other issues, result in poor application of PK in practice.


Clinical pharmacists Clinical practice Perceived barriers Pharmacokinetics Qatar 



The authors would like to thank all pharmacists who participated in the validation and piloting of the questionnaire as well as those who responded to the survey.


The study has received an external funding from the Qatar National Research Fund (QNRF) through its Undergraduate Research Experience Program (UREP). The statements made herein are solely the responsibility of the authors.

Conflicts of interest

The authors have no competing interests to declare.


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Copyright information

© Koninklijke Nederlandse Maatschappij ter bevordering der Pharmacie 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nadir Kheir
    • 1
    Email author
  • Ahmed Awaisu
    • 1
  • Hoda Gad
    • 2
  • Shereen Elazzazy
    • 3
  • Farah Jibril
    • 3
  • Mawadda Gajam
    • 3
  1. 1.College of PharmacyQatar UniversityDohaQatar
  2. 2.Weill Cornell Medical College-QatarQatar FoundationDohaQatar
  3. 3.Department of Pharmacy, National Centre for Cancer Care and ResearchHamad Medical CorporationDohaQatar

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