International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy

, Volume 36, Issue 3, pp 544–555 | Cite as

Pharmaceutical Care: the PCNE definition 2013

  • Samuel S. Allemann
  • J. W. Foppe van Mil
  • Lea Botermann
  • Karin Berger
  • Nina Griese
  • Kurt E. HersbergerEmail author
Research Article


Background Twenty-three years after Hepler and Strand published their well-known definition of Pharmaceutical Care (PhC), confusion remains about what the term includes and how to differentiate it from other terms. The board of the Pharmaceutical Care Network Europe (PCNE) felt the need to redefine PhC and to answer the question: “What is Pharmaceutical Care in 2013”. Objective The aims of this paper were to review existing definitions of PhC and to describe the process of developing a redefined definition. Methods A literature search was conducted in the MEDLINE database (1964–January 2013). Keywords included “Pharmaceutical Care”, “Medication (Therapy) Management”, “Medicine Management”, and “Pharmacist Care” in the title or abstract together with the term “defin*”. To ease comparison between definitions, we developed a standardised syntax to paraphrase the definitions. During a dedicated meeting, a moderated discussion about the definition of PhC was organised. Results The initial literature search produced 186 hits, with eight unique PhC definitions. Hand searching identified a further 11 unique definitions. These 19 definitions were paraphrased using the standardised syntax (provider, recipient, subject, outcome, activities). Fourteen members of PCNE and 10 additional experts attended the moderated discussion. Working groups of increasing size developed intermediate definitions, which had similarities and differences to those retrieved in the literature search. At the end of the session, participants reached a consensus on a “PCNE definition of Pharmaceutical Care” reading: “Pharmaceutical Care is the pharmacist’s contribution to the care of individuals in order to optimize medicines use and improve health outcomes”. Conclusions It was possible to paraphrase definitions of PhC using a standardised syntax focusing on the provider, recipient, subject, outcomes, and activities included in PhC practice. During a one-day workshop, experts in PhC research agreed on a definition, intended to be applicable for the present time, representative for various work settings, and valid for countries inside and outside of Europe.


Definition Drug-related problems Europe Medication safety Pharmaceutical care Pharmacist 



The authors would like to acknowledge the contributions of participants of this invitational conference: Cecilia Bernsten* (Sweden), Lawrence Brown (USA), Olivier Bugnon* (Switzerland), Tim Chen (Australia), Maria Cordina* (Malta), Tobias Dreischulte* (Germany), Fernando Fernandez-Llimos (Portugal), Veerle Foulon (Belgium), Richard Price (Belgium), Martin Henman* (Ireland), Hanne Herborg* (Denmark), Charlotte Kloft (Germany), Juliane Kresser (Germany), Tajda Miharija-Gala (Slovenia), Sirpa Peura* (Finland), Allison Roberts (Australia), Charlotte Rossing* (Denmark), Marion Schaefer* (Germany), Martin Schulz* (Germany), Dick Tromp* (The Netherlands), Tommy Westerlund* (Sweden). Furthermore, we are grateful to Mary Tully* for editing the final draft. *PCNE members.



Conflicts of interest

The authors report no conflicts of interest.


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Copyright information

© Koninklijke Nederlandse Maatschappij ter bevordering der Pharmacie 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Samuel S. Allemann
    • 1
  • J. W. Foppe van Mil
    • 2
  • Lea Botermann
    • 3
  • Karin Berger
    • 3
  • Nina Griese
    • 4
  • Kurt E. Hersberger
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Pharmaceutical Care Research Group, Department of Pharmaceutical SciencesUniversity of BaselBaselSwitzerland
  2. 2.Van Mil ConsultancyZuidlarenThe Netherlands
  3. 3.Department of MedicineABDA—Federal Union of German Associations of PharmacistsBerlinGermany
  4. 4.Department of PharmacyABDA—Federal Union of German Associations of PharmacistsBerlinGermany

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