Advertisement

International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy

, Volume 36, Issue 6, pp 1170–1178 | Cite as

Pharmaceutical care in Kuwait: hospital pharmacists’ perspectives

  • Maram G. KatoueEmail author
  • Abdelmoneim I. Awad
  • Terry L. Schwinghammer
  • Samuel B. Kombian
Research Article

Abstract

Background Pharmaceutical care practice has been championed as the primary mission of the pharmacy profession, but its implementation has been suboptimal in many developing countries including Kuwait. Pharmacists must have sufficient knowledge, skills, and positive attitudes to practise pharmaceutical care, and barriers in the pharmacy practice model must be overcome before pharmaceutical care can be broadly implemented in a given healthcare system. Objective To investigate hospital pharmacists’ attitudes towards pharmaceutical care, perceptions of their preparedness to provide pharmaceutical care, and the barriers to its implementation in Kuwait. Setting Six general hospitals, eight specialized hospitals and seven specialized health centers in Kuwait. Method A descriptive, cross-sectional survey was distributed to all pharmacists working in the governmental hospitals in Kuwait (385 pharmacists). Data were collected via a pre-tested self-administered questionnaire. Descriptive statistics including percentages, medians and means Likert scale rating (standard deviations) were calculated and compared using statistical package for social sciences, version 20. Statistical significance was accepted at a p value of <0.05. Main outcome measure Pharmacists’ attitudes towards pharmaceutical care, perceptions of their preparedness to provide pharmaceutical care competencies, and the barriers to its implementation in Kuwait. Results Completed surveys were received from 250 (64.9 %) of the 385 pharmacists. Pharmacists expressed overall positive attitudes towards pharmaceutical care. They felt well prepared to implement the various aspects of pharmaceutical care, with the least preparedness in the administrative/management aspects. Pharmacists with more practice experience expressed significantly more positive attitudes towards pharmaceutical care (p = 0.001) and they felt better prepared to provide pharmaceutical care competencies (p < 0.001) than those with less experience as practitioners. The respondents agreed/strongly agreed that the most significant barriers to the integration of pharmaceutical care into practice were lack of private counseling areas or inappropriate pharmacy layout (87.6 %), organizational obstacles (81.6 %), inadequate staff (79.6 %), and lack of pharmacist time and adequate technology (76.0 %). Conclusion Hospital pharmacists in Kuwait advocate implementation of pharmaceutical care while also appreciating the organizational, technical and professional barriers to its widespread adoption. Collaborative efforts between health authorities and educational institutions, and the integration of innovative approaches in pharmacy management and education could overcome these barriers and achieve the transition towards pharmaceutical care practice.

Keywords

Hospital pharmacists Kuwait Pharmaceutical care Pharmacist attitudes 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We would like to thank all the pharmacists who participated in the study. We are grateful to the hospital pharmacy directors for facilitating the distribution of the study questionnaire. We thank pharmacists Sara Al-Ajmi and Noura Al-Hamdan for their valuable assistance in data collection.

Funding

None.

Conflicts of interest

The Authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest to disclose.

References

  1. 1.
    Hepler CD, Strand LM. Opportunities and responsibilities in pharmaceutical care. Am J Hosp Pharm. 1990;47(3):533–43.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Hepler CD. The future of pharmacy: pharmaceutical care. Am Pharm. 1990;NS30(10):23–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    American Society of Hospital Pharmacists. ASHP statement on pharmaceutical care. Am J Hosp Pharm. 1993;50:1720–3.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Martin-Calero MJ, Machuca M, Murillo MD, Cansino J, Gastelurrutia MA, Faus MJ. Structural process and implementation programs of pharmaceutical care in different countries. Curr Pharm Des. 2004;10(31):3969–85.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Berenguer B, La Casa C, de la Matta MJ, Martin-Calero MJ. Pharmaceutical care: past, present and future. Curr Pharm Des. 2004;10(31):3931–46.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    May RM. Barriers to pharmaceutical care in the acute care setting. Am J Hosp Pharm. 1993;50:1608–11.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Brown CM, Barner JC, Shepherd MD. Issues and barriers related to the provision of pharmaceutical care in community health centers and migrant health centers. J Am Pharm Assoc. 2003;43(1):75–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Matowe L, Al-Kandery AS, Bihzad SM. Pharmacy in Kuwait. Am J Health Syst Pharm. 2003;60(15):1591–2.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Kheir N, Zaidan M, Younes H, El Hajj M, Wilbur K, Jewesson PJ. Pharmacy education and practice in 13 Middle Eastern countries. Am J Pharm Educ. 2008;72(6):133.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    American College of Clinical Pharmacy. The definition of clinical pharmacy. Pharmacotherapy. 2008;28(6):816–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Schommer JC, Cable GL. Current status of pharmaceutical care practice: strategies for education. Am J Pharm Educ. 1996;60:36–42.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Oparah AC, Eferakeya AE. Attitudes of Nigerian pharmacists towards pharmaceutical care. Pharm World Sci. 2005;27(3):208–14.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Al-Arifi MN. Pharmacy students’ attitudes toward pharmaceutical care in Riyadh region Saudi Arabia. Pharm World Sci. 2009;31(6):677–81.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Al-Arifi MN, Al-Dhuwaili AA, Gubara OA, Al-Omar HA, Al-Sultan MS, Saeed RIM. Pharmacists’ understanding and attitudes towards pharmaceutical care in Saudi Arabia. Saudi Pharm J. 2007;15(2):146–59.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Awad A, Al-Ebrahim S, Abahussain E. Pharmaceutical care services in hospitals of Kuwait. J Pharm Pharm Sci. 2006;9(2):149–57.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Kheir N, Al Saad D, Al Naimi S. Pharmaceutical care in the Arabic-speaking Middle East: literature review and country informant feedback. Avicenna. 2013;2:1–9.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Dunlop JA, Shaw JP. Community pharmacists’ perspectives on pharmaceutical care implementation in New Zealand. Pharm World Sci. 2002;24(6):224–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Chisholm MA, Martin BC. Development of an instrument to measure student attitudes concerning pharmaceutical care. Am J Pharm Educ. 1997;61:374–9.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Martin BC, Chisholm MA. Cross-validation of an instrument measuring students attitudes toward pharmaceutical care. Am J Pharm Educ. 1999;63:46–51.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Ried LD, Brazeau GA, Kimberlin C, Meldrum M, McKenzie M. Students’ perceptions of their preparation to provide pharmaceutical care. Am J Pharm Educ. 2002;66:347–56.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Scott DM, Friesner DL, Miller DR. Pharmacy students’ perceptions of their preparedness to provide pharmaceutical care. Am J Pharm Educ. 2010;74(1):8.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Penna RP. Pharmaceutical care: pharmacy’s mission for the 1990s. Am J Hosp Pharm. 1990;47(3):543–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Awad A, Abahussain E. Health promotion and education activities of community pharmacists in Kuwait. Pharm World Sci. 2010;32(2):146–53.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Perraudin C, Brion F, Bourdon O, Pelletier-Fleury N. The future of pharmaceutical care in France: a survey of final-year pharmacy students’ opinions. BMC Clin Pharmacol. 2011;11:6.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Rutter PM. Pharmacist work patterns: are they affected by staffing levels and prescription numbers. Int J Pharm Pract. 2002;10(S1):49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Navarro RP. Pharmacy access to electronic patient records. Med Interface. 1995;8(1):65–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Radley DC, Wasserman MR, Olsho LE, Shoemaker SJ, Spranca MD, Bradshaw B. Reduction in medication errors in hospitals due to adoption of computerized provider order entry systems. J Am Med Inform Assoc. 2013;20(3):470–6.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Roberts LL, Ward MM, Brokel JM, Wakefield DS, Crandall DK, Conlon P. Impact of health information technology on detection of potential adverse drug events at the ordering stage. Am J Health Syst Pharm. 2010;67(21):1838–46.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Wietholter J, Sitterson S, Allison S. Effects of computerized prescriber order entry on pharmacy order-processing time. Am J Health Syst Pharm. 2009;66(15):1394–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Gallagher RM, Gallagher HC. Improving the working relationship between doctors and pharmacists: is inter-professional education the answer? Adv Health Sci Educ Theory Pract. 2012;17(2):247–57.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Al-Wazaify M, Matowe L, Albsoul-Younes A, Al-Omran OA. Pharmacy education in Jordan, Saudi Arabia, and Kuwait. Am J Pharm Educ. 2006;70(1):18.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Matowe L, Abahussain EA, Al-Saffar N, Bihzad SM, Al-Foraih A, Al-Kandery AA. Physicians’ perceptions and expectations of pharmacists’ professional duties in government hospitals in Kuwait. Med Princ Pract. 2006;15(3):185–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Leape LL, Cullen DJ, Clapp MD, Burdick E, Demonaco HJ, Erickson JI, et al. Pharmacist participation on physician rounds and adverse drug events in the intensive care unit. JAMA. 1999;282(3):267–70.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Gattis WA, Hasselblad V, Whellan DJ, O’Connor CM. Reduction in heart failure events by the addition of a clinical pharmacist to the heart failure management team: results of the pharmacist in heart failure assessment recommendation and monitoring (PHARM) study. Arch Intern Med. 1999;159(16):1939–45.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Koninklijke Nederlandse Maatschappij ter bevordering der Pharmacie 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Maram G. Katoue
    • 1
    Email author
  • Abdelmoneim I. Awad
    • 2
  • Terry L. Schwinghammer
    • 3
  • Samuel B. Kombian
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Faculty of PharmacyKuwait UniversitySafatKuwait
  2. 2.Department of Pharmacy Practice, Faculty of PharmacyKuwait UniversitySafatKuwait
  3. 3.Department of Clinical PharmacyWest Virginia University School of PharmacyMorgantownUSA

Personalised recommendations