International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy

, Volume 35, Issue 2, pp 281–288 | Cite as

Patient perspectives on type 2 diabetes and medicine use during Ramadan among Pakistanis in Denmark

  • Anna MygindEmail author
  • Maria Kristiansen
  • Inge Wittrup
  • Lotte Stig Nørgaard
Research Article


Background Type 2 diabetes is highly prevalent among people of Pakistani background. Studies show that adherence to medicines is complicated for people with type 2 diabetes in general. Also, studies indicate that many people with type 2 diabetes and Muslim background fast during the month of Ramadan without adequate counselling on how to adjust their medicines. Objective To explore patient perspectives on medicine use during Ramadan, reasons for fasting and experiences with counselling on medicine use during Ramadan among people of Pakistani background with type 2 diabetes and at least one other chronic condition. Setting Greater Copenhagen, Denmark. Method The analysis is based on a study exploring lived experiences with counselling on medicines using semi-structured interviews and medication reviews. The analysis presented here builds on the subset of patients with Pakistani background (six interviewers). Results All interviewees pointed out that Islam allows ill people to refrain from fasting during Ramadan. However, all had fasted during Ramadan despite being diagnosed with type 2 diabetes. While fasting, they adapted their use of medicines in different ways, e.g. by changing the time of intake or by skipping morning medicines. Fasting during Ramadan meant a feeling of improvement in well-being for all interviewees. Reasons for this improvement included physiological, social and religious aspects. Healthcare professionals were rarely included in the decision-making process on whether or not to fast. Instead, friends and relatives, especially those with type 2 diabetes, were considered important to the decision-making process. Conclusion For people with Muslim background and a chronic condition, fasting during Ramadan may mean changes in medicine use that are not always discussed with healthcare professionals. Healthcare professionals should acknowledge that Muslim patients may find fasting during Ramadan beneficial to their well-being and therefore choose to fast despite the Islamic rule of exemption. This patient-centred approach to counselling on medicines may facilitate better medicine use and thus better clinical health outcomes among patients that choose to fast.


Adherence Denmark Diabetes mellitus Ethnic groups Fasting Immigration Medicine use Ramadan Type 2 diabetes 



We wish to thank all interviewees and Farhat Shaheen who assisted as interpreter and contact person for the patients.


The study is supported by the School of Pharmaceutical Sciences (former Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences), University of Copenhagen, Denmark, with supplementary funding from The 1991 Pharmacy Foundation (The Danish Pharmaceutical Association) and The Danish Actavis Grant.

Conflicts of interest



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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Anna Mygind
    • 1
    Email author
  • Maria Kristiansen
    • 2
  • Inge Wittrup
    • 3
  • Lotte Stig Nørgaard
    • 1
  1. 1.Section for Social Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Health and Medical SciencesUniversity of CopenhagenCopenhagenDenmark
  2. 2.Section for Health Services Research, Department of Public Health, Research Centre for Migration, Ethnicity and HealthUniversity of CopenhagenCopenhagenDenmark
  3. 3.Central Denmark Region, Public Health and Quality ImprovementÅrhusDenmark

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