Pharmacy World & Science

, Volume 32, Issue 2, pp 146–153 | Cite as

Health promotion and education activities of community pharmacists in Kuwait

  • Abdelmoneim AwadEmail author
  • Eman Abahussain
Research Article


Objectives To investigate self-reported practice of pharmacists regarding health promotion and education activities, explore the barriers that may limit their involvement in health promotion and education, and identify their willingness to participate in continuing education programs related to health education. Setting Community pharmacies in Kuwait. Method A descriptive cross-sectional study was performed using a pre-tested questionnaire on a sample of 223 community pharmacists. Main outcome measures The extent of the pharmacists’ involvement in counselling patients about health promotion and education topics, their preparation to counsel patients in health promotion and education topics, and their perceived success in changing the patients’ health behaviour. Results The response rate was 92%. Information on medication use was the most frequent reason for consumers seeking community pharmacists’ advice. The majority of respondents believed that behaviour related to the proper use of drugs was very important. There was less agreement on the importance of other health behaviours. Respondents indicated they were involved in counselling patients on health behaviours related to use of drugs as prescribed/directed, weight management, medicine contents and side effects, diet modification and stress reduction, but were less involved in counselling on other health behaviours. Respondents’ perception of themselves as “most prepared” to counsel patients closely reflected their involvement. Pharmacists reported high levels of success in helping patients to achieve improvements in using their drugs properly compared to low levels in changing patients’ personal health behaviours. The majority of respondents believed that pharmacists had a responsibility for counselling consumers on health behaviours (97%, 95% CI 95–99%), and indicated their willingness to learn more about health promotion (84%, 78–88%). Lack of pharmacists’ time was reported by about 58% of respondents as the major barrier limiting pharmacists’ provision of health promotion. Conclusion The role of community pharmacists in health promotion and education is primarily focused on pharmaceutical issues rather than health behaviour modification. The majority of respondents have a positive attitude towards counseling the population on health behaviours and indicated their willingness to learn more about health promotion.


Community pharmacist Health education Health promotion Kuwait 



We appreciate the work done by the data collectors; without their effort the study would not have been completed. We owe a gratitude to Pharmacist Mai Al-Thauwaini for the help in pre-testing of the questionnaire. We thank Professor Hannes Enlund for revising this manuscript.



Conflicts of interest statement

Authors have no conflicts of interest with regard to the data produced.


  1. 1.
    O’Donnell MP. Definition of health promotion: part III: expanding the definition. Am J Health Promot. 1989;3:5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    American Society of Health-System Pharmacists. Am J Health Syst Pharm. 2008;65:462–7.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    World Health Organization. Health Promotion Glossary. 1998. Accessed 5 Mar 2009.
  4. 4.
    Jackson JK, Sweidan M, Spinks JM, Snell B, Duncan GJ. Public health—recognising the role of Australian pharmacists. J Pharm Pract Res. 2004;34:290–2.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Benrimoj SI, Frommer MS. Community pharmacy in Australia. Aust Health Rev. 2004;28:238–46.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    De Young M. Research on the effects of pharmacist-patient communication in institutions and ambulatory care sites, 1969–1994. Am J Health Syst Pharm. 1996;53:1277–91.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Molzon JA. What kinds of patient counseling are required? Am Pharm. 1992;NS32:50–7.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Zellmer WA. Reassessing patient counseling. Am J Hosp Pharm. 1991;48:1453.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Smith F. Community pharmacists and health promotion: a study of consultations between pharmacists and clients. Health Promot Int. 1992;7:249–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Trinca CE. The pharmacists’ progress toward implementing pharmaceutical care. Am Pharm. 1995;13:8–15.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Anderson S. The state of the worlds pharmacy: a portrait of the pharmacy profession. J Interprof Care. 2002;16:391–4.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Matowe L, Al-Kandery A, Bihzad S. Pharmacy in Kuwait. Am J Health-Syst Pharm. 2003;60:1591–2.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Al-Wazaify M, Albsoul-Younes A. Pharmacy in Jordan. Am J Health-Syst Pharm. 2005;62:2548–51.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Al-Wazaify M, Matowe L, Albsoul-Younes A, Al-Omran O. Pharmacy education in Jordan, Saudi Arabia, and Kuwait. Am J Health-Syst Pharm. 2006;70(1) Article 18.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Dib JG, Saade S, Merhi F. Pharmacy in Lebanon. Am J Health-Syst Pharm. 2004;61:794–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    International Pharmaceutical Federation. Good pharmacy practice (GGP) in developing countries: recommendations for step-wise implementation. 1998. Accessed 23 Oct 2009.
  17. 17.
    World Health Organization. The role of pharmacist in self-care and self-medication. Report of the 4th WHO Consultative Group on the role of the Pharmacist. 1998. Accessed 23 Oct 2009.
  18. 18.
    Awad AI, Eltayeb IB. Self-medication practices with antibiotics and antimalarials among Sudanese undergraduate university students. Ann Pharmacother. 2007;41:1249–55.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Awad AI, Eltayeb IB, Capps PAG. Self-medication practices in Khartoum State, Sudan. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 2006;62:317–24.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Awad AI, Eltayeb IB, Matowe L, Thalib L. Self medication with antibiotics and antimalarials in the community of Khartoum State, Sudan. J Pharm Pharm Sci. 2005;8:326–31.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Sallam SA, Khallafallah NM, Ibrahim NK, Okasha AO. Pharmacoepidemiological study of self-medication in adults attending pharmacies in Alexandria, Egypt. East Mediterr Health J. 2009;15:683–91.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Awad AI, Al-Ebrahim S, Abahussain E. Pharmaceutical care services in hospitals of Kuwait. J Pharm Pharm Sci. 2006;9:149–57.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    The R, Chen T, Krass I. Consumer perspectives of pharmacist delivered health information and screening services. Int J Pharm Pract. 2001;9:261–7.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Ruston A. Achieving re-professionalisation: factors that influence the adoption of an ‘extended role’ by community pharmacists. A national survey. J Soc Adm Pharm. 2001;18:103–10.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    O’Loughlin J, Masson P, Dery V, Fagnan D. The role of community pharmacists in health education and disease prevention: a survey of their interests and needs in relation to cardiovascular disease. Prev Med. 1999;28:324–31.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Kotescki JE, Elanjian SI, Torabi MR. Health promotion beliefs and practices among pharmacists. J Am Pharm Assoc. 2000;40:773–9.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Dombrowski SR. Pharmacist counseling on nutrition and physical activity—part 1 of 2: understanding current guidelines. J Am Pharm Assoc. 1999;39:479–91.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Lenth RV. Java applets for power and sample size. 2006. Accessed 8 Nov 2006.
  29. 29.
    Sunderland B, Burrows S, Joyce A, McManus A, Maycock B. Rural pharmacy not delivering on its health promotion potential. Aust J Rural Health. 2006;14:116–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Kotecki JE, Elanjian SI, Torabi MR, Clark JK. Pharmacists’ concerns and suggestions related to the sale of tobacco and alcohol by pharmacies. J Community Health. 1998;23:359–70.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Kotecki JE, Fowler JB, German TC, Stephenson SL, Warnick T. Kentucky pharmacists’ opinions and practices related to the sale of cigarettes and alcohol in pharmacies. J Community Health. 2000;25:343–55.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Nunes V, Neilson J, O’Flynn N, Calvert N, Kuntze S, Smithson H et al. Medicines adherence: involving patients in decisions about prescribed medicines and supporting adherence. National Collaborating Centre for Primary Care. Royal College of General Practitioners; 2009. Accessed 30 Oct 2009.
  33. 33.
    McKenney JM. An evaluation of cholesterol screening in community pharmacies. Am Pharm. 1993;NS33:34–40.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Crawford N. The pharmacists officentre: providing quality care. Am Pharm. 1992;NS32:36–8.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Nykamp D, Barnett CW. Use of stationary automated blood pressure devices in pharmacies. Am Pharm. 1992;NS32:33–6.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Rutter PM. Pharmacist work patterns: are they affected by staffing levels and prescription numbers. Int J Pharm Pract. 2000;10:R 49.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Bell JS, Väänänen M, Ovaskainen H, Närhi U, Airaksinen MS. Providing patient care in community pharmacies: practice and research in Finland. Ann Pharmacother. 2007;41:1039–46.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Globe DR, Johnson K, Conant L, Frausto S. Implementing a Community-based Health Promotion Program into the Pharmacy Curriculum: The USC FUENTE Initiative. Am J Pharm Educ. 2004;68:Article 32.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Thomas SG, Beck DE, Janer A. Effect of a continuous community pharmacy practice experience on student attitudes, motivation, and communication skills. Am J Pharm Educ. 1997;61:125–31.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Pharmacy PracticeFaculty of Pharmacy, Kuwait UniversitySafatKuwait

Personalised recommendations