Describing the organisational culture of a selection of community pharmacies using a tool borrowed from social science
- 278 Downloads
Objective of the study To describe the dimensions of organisational culture within a selection of community pharmacies. Setting Community pharmacy in the New Zealand primary care sector which is partially government funded and currently undergoing major reform. Community pharmacy is under pressure to take on new roles, integrate within the wider primary care team and deliver the expectations of contemporary health policy. Method The mixed methods approach of concept mapping was undertaken with 10 representatives from six community pharmacies selected as case sites. The process was split into three parts (a) face to face brainstorming to generate statements describing culture, followed by (b) statement reduction, piloting and approval of statement list by participants, followed by (c) sorting the statements into ‘like’ groups. Multidimensional scaling analysis of participant sorting allows the development of discrete clusters of statements that describe aspects of organizational culture. Results A set of 105 statements were generated at the brainstorming meeting. Eight clusters of organisational culture resulted from participant sorting: leadership and staff management; valuing each other and the team; free thinking, fun and open to challenge; trusted behaviour; customer relations; focus on external integration; providing systematic advice; embracing innovation. Conclusion Community pharmacy is under pressure to take on new roles and deliver and there is some evidence organisational culture of pharmacy may be a barrier. Our paper outlines the development of a survey instrument for describing organisational culture through Concept mapping, a tool borrowed from social sciences. This tool can be used for exploration of aspects of culture that may be important in the change management process for improving the effectiveness of community pharmacy as expected by contemporary primary health care policy.
KeywordsCommunity pharmacy Concept mapping New Zealand Organisational culture Survey design
The lead author is grateful for the mentorship and support of the following staff from the University of Auckland: Dr Amanda Wheeler, Dr Zaheer Ud-Din Babar, Dr Fiona Kelly, Associate Professor Janie Sheridan and Professors Ngaire Kerse and John Shaw. The authors would like to thank the representatives of the case study pharmacies who participated in our concept mapping project.
The lead author is the recipient of a University of Auckland Senior Health Research Scholarship. This study was partially supported by a grant from the Pharmacy Guild of New Zealand.
Conflicts of interest
The authors do not report any conflicts of interest.
- 1.Scahill SL, Harrison J, Carswell P. Organisational culture: an important concept for pharmacy practice research. Pharm World Sci. 2009;31:517–21.Google Scholar
- 2.Canadian Pharmacists Association (CPA). Blueprint for Pharmacy. Edmonton: Canada; 2007. Available at http://www.pharmacists.ca/content/about_cpha/whats_happening/cpha_in_action/pdf/Blueprint%20Implementation%20Plan%20Final%20-%20Consultation%20April%2020%2009.pdf. Accessed 20 June 2009.
- 3.United Kingdom Dept of Health. Pharmacy in England: building on strengths—delivering the future. London (UK); 2008. Available at http://www.dh.gov.uk/en/Publicationsandstatistics/Publications/PublicationsPolicyAndGuidance/DH_083815. Accessed 18 Dec 2008.
- 4.New Zealand Ministry of Health. Medicines New Zealand. Wellington, New Zealand; 2007. Available at http://www.moh.govt.nz/moh.nsf/indexmh/medicines-nz. Accessed 18 Jan 2009.
- 5.United States Government. Pharmacy affairs and 340B drug pricing program; 2008. Available at http://www.hrsa.gov/opa/introduction.htm. Accessed 19 Jan 2008.
- 7.Commonwealth Government of Australia. Compilation of the fourth community pharmacy agreement between the commonwealth of Australia and the pharmacy. Canberra, Australia; 2005. Available at http://www.guild.org.au/uploadedfiles/National/Public/Community_Pharmacy_Agreement/4CPA%20Compilation%20Agreement_FINAL.pdf: Accessed 19 Jan 2009.
- 9.The Pharmaceutical Society of New Zealand. Focus on the future: ten year vision for pharmacists’: 2004–2014. Wellington. New Zealand; 2004. Available at http://psnz.org.nz/public/home/documents/10_yea_plan.pdf. Accessed 19 Jan 2009.
- 14.Hall J, Smith I (2006). Barriers to medicines use reviews: comparing the views of pharmacists and PCTs. Int J Pharm Pract. 14(Suppl 2):B51–2.Google Scholar
- 15.Bush J, Langley CA, Jesson JK, Wilson KA. Perceived barriers to the development of community pharmacy’s public health function: a survey of the attitudes of directors of public health and chief pharmacists in UK primary care organisations. Int J Pharm Pract. 2006; 14(Suppl 2):B68–9.Google Scholar
- 16.Walker R. Pharmaceutical Public Health: the end of pharmaceutical care? Pharm J 2000;264:340–1.Google Scholar
- 18.Cameron K, Quinn RE. Diagnosing and changing organisational culture: based on the competing values framework. 1st ed. USA: Addison Wesley; 1999. ISBN 0-201-33871-8.Google Scholar
- 19.Schein EH. Organisational culture and leadership. 3rd ed. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass; 2004. ISBN 0787975745.Google Scholar
- 21.Liamputtong P, Ezzy D. Qualitative research methods. 2nd ed. Melbourne: Oxford University Press; 2005. ISBN 019551744X.Google Scholar
- 22.Martin J. Cultures in organisations: three perspectives. 1st ed. New York: Oxford University Press; 1992. ISBN 0195071638.Google Scholar
- 23.Martin J. Organisational culture: mapping the terrain. Thousand Oaks: Sage; 2002. ISBN 0803972946.Google Scholar
- 27.Kilmann RH, Saxton MJ, Serpa R. Gaining control of the corporate culture. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass; 1985. ISBN 0875896669.Google Scholar
- 30.Burchell N, Kolb D. Pattern matching organisational cultures. J Aust NZ Acad Manag. 2003;9(3):50–61.Google Scholar