Pharmacy World & Science

, Volume 29, Issue 5, pp 541–545 | Cite as

The cost-effectiveness of pharmacist-led treatment of cardiac risk in patients with type 2 diabetes

  • Andrew Lowey
  • Sara MooreEmail author
  • Catherine Norris
  • David Wright
  • Jonathan Silcock
  • Peter Hammond
Research Article



People with type 2 diabetes mellitus have an increased risk of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease compared with the general population. Following attempts to change lifestyle, pharmacological treatment is necessary to modify this risk. However, the use of medicines may be sub-optimal because of infrequent or inadequate medication review.


Harrogate District Hospital, a medium-sized district general hospital in a rural area of North Yorkshire, England.


A pharmacist-led hospital clinic was established to manage diabetic patients suffering from resistant hypertension with or without hyperlipidaemia. Patients with two consecutive elevated blood pressure (BP) readings (>140/80 mmHg) were recruited via referral from out-patient clinics and diabetic nurse specialists. A range of clinical indicators were assessed on referral. The pharmacist prepared individualised patient information and a patient-held record card. An evidence-based algorithm was used to make adjustments (every 4 weeks) to anti-hypertensive medication. If necessary treatment of hyperlipidaemia was also optimised. Published data was used to predict the 10-year risk of coronary heart disease and cerebrovascular accident for each patient before and after intensive medicines management. Patients were discharged from the clinic after two consecutive target BP measurements.


It is estimated that these risks were reduced by 11.9 and 9.6%, respectively, at a cost per event avoided of £34,708 and £63,320.


Intensive pharmacist-led clinics are potentially a cost-effective way to improve the cardiovascular health of patients with type␣2 diabetes.


Diabetes mellitus Hypertension Hyperlipidaemia Pharmacy Cost-effectiveness Cardiovascular risk United Kingdom Pharmacoeconomics Pharmacist 


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We would like to thank the following members of staff at Harrogate Healthcare NHS Trust for their help and support: Dr. Mike Toop, Consultant Chemical Pathologist, The Diabetic Specialist Nursing Team, Angela Wardman, Senior Pharmacist, Medicines Information, Pam Calvert, Director of Pharmacy, Dr. Sean Brotheridge, Consultant Physician, Dr. Hugh Larkin, Consultant Physician.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Andrew Lowey
    • 1
  • Sara Moore
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Catherine Norris
    • 1
  • David Wright
    • 3
  • Jonathan Silcock
    • 4
  • Peter Hammond
    • 1
  1. 1.Pharmacy DepartmentHarrogate & District Foundation TrustHarrogateUK
  2. 2.Pharmacy Department, Gledhow WingLeeds Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust, St. James University HospitalLeedsUK
  3. 3.School of Chemical Sciences and PharmacyUniversity of East AngliaNorwichUK
  4. 4.Pharmacy Practice and Medicines Management GroupUniversity of LeedsLeedsUK

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