Advertisement

Pharmacy World and Science

, Volume 28, Issue 4, pp 233–238 | Cite as

Beliefs about Medicines among Swedish Pharmacy Employees

  • Tove M. JörgensenEmail author
  • Karolina A. Andersson
  • Ann-Charlotte M. Mårdby
Research Article

Abstract

Objective: The aim of this study was to describe the beliefs about medicines among pharmacy employees. A further aim was to analyse whether these beliefs were associated with any background characteristics, such as age, professional category or medication use. Method: The study subjects were pharmacy employees at 24 community pharmacies in Göteborg, Sweden. The participating pharmacies had a total of 372 employees (pharmacists, dispensing pharmacists, and pharmacy technicians). Data was collected at the weekly pharmacy information meetings with a questionnaire comprising background questions and the Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire (BMQ). The general part of the BMQ was used. For each statement in the BMQ, respondents marked their degree of agreement on a five-point Likert scale (1=strongly disagree, 2=disagree, 3=uncertain, 4=agree and 5=strongly agree). Main outcome measure: The three subscales of BMQ General: General Harm, General Overuse and General Benefit. Results: The majority of the 292 respondents were dispensing pharmacists. More than half of the respondents were aged 45 years or older and had worked in a pharmacy for 20 years or more. Compared to the other professional categories, a higher proportion of dispensing pharmacists stated that they currently used traditional medicines. The pharmacy employees had a mean score for General Benefit of 4.31 and a mean score for General Harm of 1.81. Pharmacists and dispensing pharmacists in general regarded medicines as somewhat more benificial, whereas pharmacy technicians viewed medicines as slightly more harmful. Those who had worked in a pharmacy for 30–34 years regarded medicines as less harmful compared to those who had worked 0–4 years. Compared to non-users, current users of prescription drugs regarded medicines as more beneficial. When controlling for background characteristics, no confounders were detected for any of the three subscales (ANCOVA analyses). Conclusion: Results of the study of 292 Swedish pharmacy employees show that they regard medicines as beneficial rather than harmful and that there are differences in beliefs between the professional categories. However, the reasons for these differences remain unclear. Nevertheless, the positive beliefs among pharmacy employees may have an impact on the communication with clients and, eventually, clients’ adherence to medicines.

Keywords

Beliefs about medicines BMQ  Community Pharmacy Pharmacy employees  Sweden  

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Blom A, Kam A, Bakker A and Claesson C (1993). Patient counselling in community pharmacy. A comparative study between Swedish and Dutch pharmacists. J Soc Admin Pharm 10(2): 53–62Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Claesson C, Burman K, JLG N and Vinge E. (1995). Prescription errors detected by Swedish pharmacists. Int J Pharm Pract 3: 151–156Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Marklund B, Westerlund T, Brånstad J-O and Sjöblom M (2003). Referrals of dyspeptic self-care patients from pharmacies to physicians, supported by clinical guidelines. Pharm World Sci 25(4): 168–172CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Westerlund T, Almarsdottir A and Melander A (1999). Drug-related problems and pharmacy interventions in community practice. Int J Pharm Pract 7: 40–50Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    World Health Organization (WHO). (1994) Role of the pharmacist in support of the WHO revised drug strategy. In: Forty-seventh World Health Assembly, 1994 May 10, p. WHA47.12Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Bloom Cerkoney K and Hart L (1980). The relationship between the Health Belief Model and compliance of persons with diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Care 3(5): 594–598Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Kelly G, Mamon J and Scott J (1987). Utility of the health belief model in examining medication compliance among psychiatric outpatients. Soc Sci Med 25(11): 1205–1211CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Nelson E, Stason W, Neutra R, Solomon H and McArdle P (1978). Impact of patient perceptions on compliance with treatment for hypertension. Med Care 16(11): 893–906PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Ogden J. (2004a) Health beliefs. In: Health Psychology: a textbook, 3rd ed. Open University Press, Berkshire, pp. 13–46Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Ried L and Christensen D (1988). A psychosocial perspective in the explanation of patients’ drug-taking behaviour. Soc Sci Med 27(3): 277–285CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Horne R and Weinman J (1998). Predicting treatment adherence: an overview of theoretical models. In: Myers, LB and Midence, K (eds) Adherence to treatment in medical conditions, pp 25–50. Harwood academic, LondonGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Horne R and Weinman J (2002). Self-regulation and self-management in asthma: exploring the role of illness perceptions and treatment beliefs in explaining non-adherence to preventer medication. Psychol Health 17(1): 17–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Vermeire E, Hearnshaw H and Denekens J (2001). Patient adherence to treatment: three decades of research. A comprehensive review. J Clin Pharm Ther 26: 331–342CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Bultman D and Svarstad B (2000). Effects of physician communication style on client mediciation beliefs and adherence with antidepressant treatment. Patient Educ Couns 40: 173–185CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Ogden J. (2004b) Doctor–patient communication and the role of health professionals’ health beliefs. In: Health Psychology: a textbook, 3rd ed. Open University Press, Berkshire, pp. 75–98Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Makoul G, Arntson P and Schofield T (1995). Health promotion in primary care: physician–patient communication and decision making about prescription medication. Soc Sci Med 41(9): 1241–1254CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Horne R, Frost S, Hankins M and Wright S (2001). “In the eye of the beholder”: pharmacy students have more positive perceptions of medicines than students of other disciplines. Int J Pharm Pract 9: 85–89Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Kansanaho H, Puumalainen I, Varunki M, Airaksinen M and Aslani P (2004). Attitudes of Finnish community pharmacists toward concordance. Ann Pharmacother 38: 1946–1953CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Horne R, Weinman J and Hankins M (1999). The Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire: the development and evaluation of a new method for assessing the cognitive representation of medication. Psychol Health 14: 1–24Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Isacson D and Bingefors K (2002). Attitudes towards drugs – a survey in the general population. Pharm World Sci 24(3): 104–110CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Bush P and Iannotti R (1988). Origins and stability of children’s health beliefs relative to medicine use. Soc Sci Med 27(4): 345–352CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Kirking D (1984). Evaluation of an explanatory model of pharmacists’ patient counseling activities. J Soc Administr Pharm 2(2): 50–56Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Hassell K, Noyce P, Rogers A, Harris J and Wilkinson J (1998). Advice provided in British community pharmacies: what people want and what they get. J Health Ser Res Policy 3(4): 219–225Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Skoglund P, Isacson D and Kjellgren KI (2003). Analgesic medication – communication at pharmacies. Patient Educ Couns 51: 155–161CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tove M. Jörgensen
    • 1
    Email author
  • Karolina A. Andersson
    • 1
  • Ann-Charlotte M. Mårdby
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Social MedicineThe Sahlgrenska Academy at Göteborg UniversityGöteborgSweden

Personalised recommendations